This study contained two experimental examinations of the cognitive activities such as visual attention and memory in viewing stereoscopic (3D) images. For this study, partially converted 3D images were used with binocular parallax added to a specific region of the image. In Experiment 1, change blindness was used as a presented stimulus. The visual attention and impact on memory were investigated by measuring the response time to accomplish the given task. In the change blindness task, an 80 ms blank was intersected between the original and altered images, and the two images were presented alternatingly for 240 ms each. Subjects were asked to temporarily memorize the two switching images and to compare them, visually recognizing the difference between the two. The stimuli for four conditions (2D, 3D, Partially converted 3D, distracted partially converted 3D) were randomly displayed for 20 subjects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that partially converted 3D images tend to attract visual attention and are prone to remain in viewer’s memory in the area where moderate negative parallax has been added.
In order to examine the impact of a dynamic binocular disparity on partially converted 3D images, an evaluation experiment was conducted that applied learning, distraction, and recognition tasks for 33 subjects. The learning task involved memorizing the location of cells in a 5 × 5 matrix pattern using two different colors. Two cells were positioned with alternating colors, and one of the gray cells was moved up, down, left, or right by one cell width. Experimental conditions was set as a partially converted 3D condition in which a gray cell moved diagonally for a certain period of time with a dynamic binocular disparity added, a 3D condition in which binocular disparity was added to all gray cells, and a 2D condition. The correct response rates for recognition of each task after the distraction task were compared. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the correct response rate in the partial 3D condition was significantly higher with the recognition task than in the other conditions. These results showed that partially converted 3D images tended to have a visual attraction and affect viewer’s memory.
This paper describes a study that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which
an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that
evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of famous 3D movies.
From the results of the experiment, for pleasant, a significant difference was found only for the main effect of the
emotions. On the other hand, for arousal, there was a trend of increasing the evaluation values in the order 2D condition,
3D condition and 3D condition applied the disparity modification for happiness, surprise, and fear. This suggests the
possibility that binocular disparity and the modification affect arousal.
In this study, for the heritage of industrial modernization we produced a stereoscopic archive of the JVC KENWOOD Yokohama Factory façade, which was dismantled in March 2011, by converting 2D into 3D images. Further, drawn images of the cultural asset were also converted into 3D images in order to evaluate them as part of a stereoscopic archive in terms of how well they express the asset. An experiment was conducted to compare subjects' content impressions under the different image conditions. For the experiment, head mounted display and 42-inch 3D TV were used. 30 students in twenties years of age. with normal binocular vision. participated through questionnaires and interviews to compare the impressions, between the conditions.
There are three main approaches creating stereoscopic S3D content: stereo filming using two cameras, stereo rendering of 3D computer graphics, and 2D to S3D conversion by adding binocular information to 2D material images. Although manual “off-line” conversion can control the amount of parallax flexibly, 2D material images are converted according to monocular information in most cases, and the flexibility of 2D to S3D conversion has not been exploited. If the depth is expressed flexibly, comprehensions and interests from converted S3D contents are anticipated to be differed from those from 2D. Therefore, in this study we created new S3D content for education by applying 2D to S3D conversion. For surgical education, we created S3D surgical operation content under a surgeon using a partial 2D to S3D conversion technique which was expected to concentrate viewers’ attention on significant areas. And for art education, we converted Ukiyoe prints; traditional Japanese artworks made from a woodcut. The conversion of this content, which has little depth information, into S3D, is expected to produce different cognitive processes from those evoked by 2D content, e.g., the excitation of interest, and the understanding of spatial information. In addition, the effects of the representation of these contents were investigated.
The methods available for delivering stereoscopic (3D) display using glasses can be classified as time-multiplexing and
spatial-multiplexing. With both methods, intrinsic visual artifacts result from the generation of the 3D image pair on a
flat panel display device. In the case of the time-multiplexing method, an observer perceives three artifacts: flicker, the
Mach-Dvorak effect, and a phantom array. These only occur under certain conditions, with flicker appearing in any
conditions, the Mach-Dvorak effect during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPM), and a phantom array during saccadic
eye movements (saccade). With spatial-multiplexing, the artifacts are temporal-parallax (due to the interlaced video
signal), binocular rivalry, and reduced spatial resolution. These artifacts are considered one of the major impediments to
the safety and comfort of 3D display users. In this study, the implications of the artifacts for the safety and comfort are
evaluated by examining the psychological changes they cause through subjective symptoms of fatigue and the depth
sensation. Physiological changes are also measured as objective responses based on analysis of heart and brain activation
by visual artifacts. Further, to understand the characteristics of each artifact and the combined effects of the artifacts,
four experimental conditions are developed and tested. The results show that perception of artifacts differs according to
the visual environment and the display method. Furthermore visual fatigue and the depth sensation are influenced by the
individual characteristics of each artifact. Similarly, heart rate variability and regional cerebral oxygenation changes by
perception of artifacts in conditions.
Crosstalk is a phenomenon in stereoscopy where an image becomes blurry due to leakage of the left image into
the right eye and vice versa, and is considered one of the serious problems impairing stereoscopic experience. The
current study examines mental/cognitive activity under a various levels of crosstalk through heart activity and
forehead blood flow. In the experiment that presented three still natural images and one graphical video with
a various crosstalk levels, heart rate showed a decelerative-accelerative-decelerative pattern for all the stimuli
up to the intolerably severe level. The result suggests changes in mental state in accordance to the crosstalk
level: i.e. orientation response under no perceived crosstalk, active mental elaboration upon noticing crosstalk,
and reduced level of elaboration as crosstalk progressed. The pattern, however, did not always agree amongst
the physiological measures and the crosstalk ratios. This suggests that the mental state under crosstalked image
viewing could be more complex than a simple combination of orientation response and active mental elaboration.
In this study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the psycho-physiological effects by practical use of monocular
head-mounted display (HMD) in a real-world environment, based on the assumption of consumer-level applications as
viewing video content and receiving navigation information while walking. In the experiment 1, the workload was
examined for different types of presenting stimuli using an HMD (monocular or binocular, see-through or non-see-through).
The experiment 2 focused on the relationship between the real-world environment and the visual information
presented using a monocular HMD. The workload was compared between a case where participants walked while
viewing video content without relation to the real-world environment, and a case where participants walked while
viewing visual information to augment the real-world environment as navigations.
In this paper, the authors conducted an experiment to evaluate the UX in an actual outdoor environment, assuming the
casual use of monocular HMD to view video content while short walking. In conducting the experiment, eight subjects
were asked to view news videos on a monocular HMD while walking through a large shopping mall. Two types of
monocular HMDs and a hand-held media player were used, and the
psycho-physiological responses of the subjects were
measured before, during, and after the experiment. The VSQ, SSQ and NASA-TLX were used to assess the subjective
workloads and symptoms. The objective indexes were heart rate and stride and a video recording of the environment in
front of the subject's face. The results revealed differences between the two types of monocular HMDs as well as
between the monocular HMDs and other conditions. Differences between the types of monocular HMDs may have been
due to screen vibration during walking, and it was considered as a major factor in the UX in terms of the workload.
Future experiments to be conducted in other locations will have higher cognitive loads in order to study the performance
and the situation awareness to actual and media environments.
The authors have developed a binocular-type display system that allows digital archives of cultural assets to be viewed in their actual environment. The system is designed for installation in locations where such cultural assets were originally present. The viewer sees buildings and other heritage items as they existed historically by looking through the binoculars. Images of the cultural assets are reproduced by stereoscopic 3D CG in cyberspace, and the images are superimposed on actual images in real-time. This system consists of stereoscopic CCD cameras that capture a stereo view of the landscape and LCDs for presentation to the viewer. Virtual cameras, used to render CG images from digital archives, move in synchrony with the actual cameras, so the relative position of the CG images and the landscape on which they are superimposed is always fixed. The system has manual controls for digital zoom. Furthermore, the transparency of the CG images can be altered by the viewer. As a case study for the effectiveness of this system, the authors chose the Heijyoukyou ruins in Nara, Japan. The authors evaluate the sense of immersion, stereoscopic effect, and usability of the system.