A seismic-resistant member with a shape memory alloy (SMA) rod was used in an exposed-type column base as a passive damper for building structures. Horizontal and vertical loading tests on the column base with SMA anchorage were done with increasing drift amplitude to investigate the restoring force characteristics of the column base. The results showed that (1) use of an SMA rod prevents deterioration of the restoring force characteristics, (2) use of an appropriate SMA material and a moderate-size rod can yield large deformation capacity and good restoring force characteristics, and (3) after a large drift in the building frame, SMA anchorage enables the original shape and resisting performance to recover with unloading.
Characteristics of piezoelectric dampers built with piezoelectric materials were investigated as part of a smart structural system for buildings. Piezoelectric materials can be applied not only to the sensors and the actuators, but also to the dampers. Here, first the damping mechanism and the complex stiffness for a piezoelectric damper were derived from the piezoelectric equations. Then, based on the complex stiffness and Biggs's formula, an equation used to evaluate the damping performance for building structures with piezoelectric dampers was derived. Finally, to determine the applicability and availability of piezoelectric dampers, the habitability of a building with piezoelectric dampers to strong wind was investigated for a high-rise steel apartment building. The results show that piezoelectric dampers enable high-rise apartments of practical dimensions to satisfy H-2 grade habitability.