In this article the recent progress in the elements of EUV lithography is presented. Source power around 205W was demonstrated and further scaling up is going on, which is expected to be implemented in the field within 2017. Source availability keeps improving especially due to the introduction of new droplet generator but collector lifetime needs to be verified at each power level. Mask blank defect satisfied the HVM goal. Resist meets the requirements of development purposes and dose needs to be reduced further to satisfy the productivity demand. Pellicle, where both the high transmittance and long lifetime are demanded, needs improvements especially in pellicle membrane. Potential issues in high-NA EUV are discussed including resist, small DOF, stitching, mask infrastructure, whose solutions need to be prepared timely in addition to high-NA exposure tool to enable this technology.
We survey several different approaches wherein self-assembly has been applied in lithographic patterning. As part of
this survey, we trace the evolution of block copolymer directed
self-assembly used as lithographic technique, and
summarize its current status. We compare a process based on block copolymer lithography with an equivalent process
based on spacer pitch division. We conclude with a brief discussion of design issues and future research in the field.
Directed polymer self-assembly which combines lithographically defined substrates and self-assembled polymers has
been considered as a potential candidate to extend conventional patterning techniques. In the past few years, successful
demonstration of directed self-assembly of block copolymer shows that this method can afford sub-lithographic
resolution or enhances dimensional control. However, integration of polymer self-assembly into standard lithographic
processes remains a challenge and requires new materials. In this paper, we demonstrate robust and thermally crosslinked
underlayer materials which control the orientation of block copolymer assemblies and are compatible with
standard lithographic processes. These new materials allow simple integration of perpendicularly oriented polystyrene-b-
polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) domains into standard manufacturing processes.
Material properties and directed self-assembly of a block copolymer containing hybrid material are presented in this
paper. The hybrid material, which is a mixture of poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) and organosilicate (OS),
shows morphologies of microdomains similar to those of organic diblock copolymers depending on the fraction of each
phase, i.e. PS and PEO+OS. This material system shows very strong segregation between phases, which provides well
defined microdomains in thin films even right after spin coating. The strong segregation also makes it possible to
generate microdomains of sub-10 nm length scale regime. The hybrid is found to be directed self-assembly (DSA)-
friendly, thus typical topographic and/or chemical guiding patterns can be used for DSA of the hybrid.
Directed self-assembly (DSA) of a block copolymer containing hybrid material using topographic guiding patterns is
presented in this paper. Lamellar microdomains of the hybrid material, which is a mixture of poly(styrene-b-ethylene
oxide) (PS-b-PEO) and organosilicate (OS) precursor, have orientational correlation length about five times longer than
typical organic block copolymers such as poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). The longer correlation
length (i.e. bigger grain size) makes it possible to align the lamellar microdomain into geometries similar to device
layouts. We report one-dimensional assembly of lamellar microdomains on substrates, which gives crossbar and multifinger
We report the formation of robust organosilicate line patterns of ~20nm half-pitch on surfaces from the self-assembled
lamellar phase of a diblock copolymer of polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide), PS-b-PEO, and an oligomeric
organosilicate precursor mixtures. We could control the orientation and alignment of microdomains of this hybrid to the
same degree of the thin films of organic block copolymers. By controlling the surface energy of substrates using dense
organosilicate, the perpendicular orientation of lamellae to the surface was achieved. Topographic prepatterns were
generated by E-beam lithography and used for alignment of the line patterns from lamellar phase. Upon removing the
organic component (i.e. PS-b-PEO) by thermal treatment, the organosilicate microdomains remain as periodic line
patterns with global alignment on surfaces. This method gives well-aligned silicon-containing line patterns with sublithographic
length scales on surface. The self-assembled organosilicate line patterns were successfully transferred into
underlying silicon substrate using anisotropic plasma etching.