Infrared resistor arrays perform a vital role in the hardware in the loop testing of infrared seekers. Infrared resistor arrays composed of large numbers of suspended resistor elements are commonly used to produce dynamic two-dimensional images of infrared radiation. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of the resistor arrays, the temperature each resistor elements reaches for a given input voltage is variable and this leads to more significant radiance differences, these differences result in spatially-distributed radiance non-uniformity. Therefore, in order to obtain an available infrared image, non-uniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. In this paper, the non-uniformity characters of the infrared resistor arrays are analyzed base on measured data and then an improved sparse grid method for engineering are discussed and analyzed. First of all, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the infrared resistor arrays NUC procedure. According to the actual fact and the laboratory condition, we presented an alternative method for collecting resistor arrays intended to reduce the influence causing by the NUC camera. Secondly, based on the measured non-uniformity data, we obtain the response characteristics of the infrared resistor arrays. In each gray level, we take two points or several points correction algorithm to calculate the gain data and the offset data, and then the linear look-up table is established. Finally, through MATLAB we develop the correction software, and we can obtain the driving output conveniently. The result shows that the image quality has a remarkable improvement after non-uniformity correction, the non-uniformity correction flow and algorithm preferably satisfies the requirement of the high confidence infrared imaging simulation.
The first and most essential capability a visible scene projection system must have is low background and high contrast during dynamic simulation. A complex visible scene projection system was developed to meet the above requirements. The complex visible scene projection system mainly consists of the optical fiber subsystem, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) subsystem, multiple focal plane coupler and the collimation objective. The design and build and details of the system characterization of a prototype complex visible scene projector were summarized.
The star sensor simulation system is uesed to test the star sensor performance on the ground，which is designed for star identification and spacecraft attitude determnation of the spacecraft. The computer star scene based on the astronomical star chat is generated for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the star sensor simulation system using by openGL.
The Modified Hybrid-Input-Output (MHIO) phase retrieval algorithm is proposed for wavefront sensing. The results show that the MHIO algorithm significantly outperforms the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (MGS) in large noise. However its dynamic-range is lower than MGS algorithm. It also shows that if combine the MGS algorithm with MHIO algorithm, which is called MGS+MHIO algorithm, then it can retain the property of MGS’s high dynamic-range and MHIO’s accuracy so that outperforms either MGS or MHIO algorithm. Repeating simulation results show that MGS+MHIO algorithm improves RMS of phase error obviously in high dynamic range and large noise.
The imaging through atmospheric turbulence is an inevitable problem encountered by infrared imaging sensors working in the turbulence atmospheric environment. Before light-rays enter the window of the imaging sensors, the atmospheric turbulence will randomly interfere with the transmission of the light waves came from the objects, causing the distribution of image intensity values on the focal plane to diffuse, the peak value to decrease, the image to get blurred, and the pixels to deviate, and making image identification very difficult. Owing to the fact of the long processing time and that the atmospheric turbulent flow field is unknown and hard to be described by mathematical models, dynamic simulation for distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects is much more difficult and challenging in the world. This paper discusses the dynamic simulation for distortion Image of turbulence atmospheric transmission effect. First of all, with the data and the optical transmission model of the turbulence atmospheric, the ray-tracing method is applied to obtain the propagation path of optical ray which propagates through the high-speed turbulent flow field, and then to calculate the OPD from the reference wave to the reconverted wave front and obtain the point spread function (PSF). Secondly, infrared characteristics models of typical scene were established according to the theory of infrared physics and heat conduction, and then the dynamic infrared image was generated by OpenGL. The last step is to obtain the distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects .With the data of atmospheric transmission computation, infrared simulation image of every frame was processed according to the theory of image processing and the real-time image simulation, and then the dynamic distortion simulation images with effects of blurring, jitter and shifting were obtained. Above-mentioned simulation method can provide the theoretical bases for recovering the blur images and analyzing the turbulence atmospheric transmission effects.
In the process of high-resolution astronomical observation and space optical mapping, the wavefront aberrations caused by atmosphere turbulence effect lead to reduced resolution of optical imaging sensor. Firstly, on the base of influence of atmosphere turbulence effect for the optical observation system, this paper investigates and analyses the development and technical characteristics of deformable mirror, which is the key device of optical wavefront control technology. In this part, the paper describes the basic principles of wavefront control and measurement using the current production line of deformable mirror, including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror which is one of the most promising technology for wavefront modulation and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Secondly, a new method based on the technology of optical wavefront control and the data of optical path difference (OPD) for simulating the effect of optical transmission induced by turbulence is presented in this paper. The modeling and characteristics of atmosphere turbulence effect applied for optical imagery detector of astronomical observation and space optical mapping has been obtained. Finally, based on the theory model of atmosphere turbulence effects and digital simulation results, a preliminary experiment was done and the results verify the feasibility of the new method. The OPD data corresponding to optical propagation effect through turbulent atmosphere can be achieved by the calculation based on the method of ray-tracing and principle of physical optics. It is a common practice to decompose aberrated wavefronts in series over the Zernike polynomials. These data will be applied to the drive and control of the deformable mirror. This kind of simulation method can be applied to simulate the optical distortions effect, such as the dithering and excursion of light spot, in the space based earth observation with the influence of turbulent atmosphere. With the help of the optical wavefront control technology, the optical sensor and ability of space optical detection system for correcting the target image blurred by turbulence of atmosphere can be tested and evaluated in the laboratory.
The multitarget compounding technique is key in an infrared hardware-in-the-loop simulation system. In this study, the beam-broadening theory and carefully designed experiments are presented to analyze a multitarget compounding system based on a dimpled mirror. By paraxial approximation of geometrical optics, the expression of broadened beamwidth of a dimpled-mirror two-mirror three-reflection concentric system was obtained as the function of system parameters. A multitarget compounding setup was designed and experiments were performed. Excellent matching results were achieved between the beamwidth theory and the experiments. Experimental results demonstrated that the beam-broadening theory is creditable and suitable to design the multitarget compounding system. The theory and experiments are beneficial to the future development and implementation of multitarget compounding technique.
IR projectors applied in HWIL simulations are responsible for generating a radiometric output which is similar to the
imager output for a real world targets and background in desired wavelength to the seeker under test. Projector
technologies meet more challenge as seekers performances improving. A variety of projectors has been constructed to
satisfy different use. This paper describes three projectors which include a dual-band IR extended source projector, a
MWIR Digital Micromirror Device(DMD) projector and a LWIR resistive array projector.
The Multi-spectral simulation system has been constructed at Beijing Simulation Center (BSC) for hardware-in-the-loop
(HWIL) testing of optical and infrared seekers, in single-band and dual-band, or even multi-band. This multi-spectral
simulation facility consists primarily of several projectors and a wide-angular simulation mechanism, the projector
technologies utilized at BSC include a broadband point source collimator, a laser echo simulator and a visible scene
projection system. These projectors can be used individually with the wide-angular simulation mechanism, or any
combination of both or all of three can be used according to different needs. The configuration and performance of each
technology are reviewed in the paper. Future plans include two IR imaging projectors which run at high frame
frequency. The multi-spectral optical simulation system has been successfully applied for visible and IR imaging seekers
testing in HWIL simulation. The laser echo simulator hardware will be applied soon.