Understanding of the noise characteristics of a long wavelength (LW) vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) under optical back reflection is crucial for its applications in optical fiber data communication. VCSELs at near 1.31μm are tested and the relative intensity noise (RIN) is measured in the presence of different levels of optical reflection intensity. Innovative LW VCSEL packaging solutions are demonstrated to achieve robust low cost error-free data
We discuss the reliability of the oxide VCSELs made by Agilent Technologies (formerly part of Hewlett Packard). Measurements of operating temperature in fiber optic modules are given; these temperatures are higher than generally assumed. General challenges with oxide VCSEL reliability are introduced, and different types of failures are discussed. Long-term oxide VCSEL lifetest results are presented, along with observations about the thermal and current acceleration models. Production monitoring strategies are discussed, and the basic degradation phenomenology is briefly shown.
Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) have rapidly been adopted for use in data communications modules due largely to the improvement in reliability over that of competing compact disc lasers. While very long mean lifetimes for VCSELs have been published elsewhere (> 5 X 10<SUP>6</SUP> h MTTF at 40C), telecommunications switching applications require further reduction in the early failure rate to meet targets of < 0.5% failures over 25 years at 50 - 70 degree(s)C. Therefore, a extensive reliability program is needed to measure both the wear-out lifetime and the random failure rate of the devices. The results of accelerated life tests will be presented, and we will discuss the methodology used to estimate the failure rate. Models of current and thermal acceleration will be presented. Degradation mechanisms observed in HP lasers will be briefly discussed. We also present preliminary results from HP oxide-aperture VCSELs.
Oxide confined VCSELs are being developed at Hewlett-Packard for the next-generation low cost fiber optics communication applications. Compared to the existing 850 nm implant confined VCSELs, the oxide VCSELs have lower operating voltages, higher slope efficiencies, and better modal bandwidth characteristics. Preliminary data on epitaxy and oxidation control uniformity, device performance, and reliability will be discussed.
This paper describes crystal growth techniques for achieving good electroluminescence efficiency and narrow linewidth from a GaAs-based light emitting device emitting at 1.3 micrometers . The long wavelength emission is achieved using a quantum dot active region grown by sub-monolayer In, Ga and As. Low threshold lasing at a shorter wavelength of 1.15 micrometers is achieved in a GaAs-based oxide-confined vertical- cavity laser using alternating single monolayer growth of InAs/GaAs QDs.
The ability to tailor the emission characteristics through use of a microcavity has become an interesting topic for fabricating improved forms of light emitters. For semiconductor light emitters the novel cavity physics also complements the technological importance, and the advanced fabrication techniques allow for mode confinement presently in the volume range of tens of cubic emission wavelengths. In this paper we discuss the mode confinement possible with Fabry-Perot semiconductor microcavities that both have extremely short cavity lengths and contain embedded dielectric regions.WHile this confinements mechanism was discovered in late 1993, it was not at first clearly understood. Today we have a much better understanding of this system, and it becomes clear that it can impact a broad range of microcavity light emitters. In addition, we discuss combining the 3D confinement of the microcavity with 3D confinement of the electronic carriers, and demonstrate room-temperature lasing from quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.