We report on our efforts to integrate silica and polymer waveguide devices, such as arrayed waveguide gratings
(AWG's), tunable lenses, optical switches, variable optical attenuators (VOA's), power taps. In particular, the
realizations of various optical add/drop multiplexers and tunable dispersion compensators are discussed. The integration
techniques, the design architectures and the corresponding optical performances are presented.
Integrated multimode interference coupler based on silicon-on- insulator has been become a kind of more and more attractive device in optical systems. Thin cladding layers (< 1.0 micrometers ) can be used in SOI waveguide due to the large index step between Si and SiO<SUB>2</SUB>, making them compatible with the VLSI technology. Here we demonstrate the design and fabrication of multimode interference (MMI) optical couplers and optical switches in SOI technology.
Mode-matching and effective-index methods have been used to analyze single-mode operation of optical polymer rib waveguides. The single-mode conditions have been obtained for rib waveguides fabricated from guest-host polyetherketone. The propagation loss of straight rib- waveguides is about 0.7 dB/cm at 1.3 micrometers wavelength.
Silicon-on insulator (SOI) is an attractive platform for the fabrication of optoelectronic integrated circuit. Thin cladding layers (< 1.0 micrometer) can be used in SOI waveguide due to the large index step between Si and SiO<SUB>2</SUB>, making them compatible with the VLSI technology. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of 1 X 4 and 2 X 2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler based on SOI technology. Performances of the devices are analyzed. The minimum excess loss of the devices is about 1.8 dB. The devices show uniform power distribution.
Wafer bonding is regardless of lattice mismatch in the integration of dissimilar semiconductor materials. This technology differs from the heteroepitaxy mainly in the mechanism of generating dislocations at the interface. A model of dislocations at the bonded interface is proposed in this paper. Edge-like dislocations, which most efficiently relax the strain, are predominant at the bonded interface. But the thermal stress associated with large thermal expansion misfit may drive dislocations away from the bonded interface upon cooling.