A novel tubular optical waveguide-based particle plasmon resonance (TOW-PPR) device for chemical and biochemical sensing is presented. The sensor is based on intensity measurement of consecutive total internal reflections (TIRs) along the wall of the gold nanoparticles-modified glass vial at a fixed wavelength from a miniaturized light emitting diode (LED). The extinction cross-section of self-assembled gold nanoparticles on the inner wall surface of a tubular glass vial changes with different refractive indexes (RIs) of surroundings in the vicinity of nanoparticles. In comparison with other evanescent wave based optical sensors, the TOW-PPR sensor possesses merits of being a wavelength-selectable optical waveguide sensor to fit application needs, microchamber of a defined sample volume, and itself of being a mechanical support for sensor coatings. The sensor resolution is estimated to be 2.7x10-6 RIU in measuring solutions of various RIs ranging from 1.343 to 1.403 obtained by dissolving sucrose in ultrapure water with a concentration between 6.8% and 41.7%. Moreover, the TOW-PPR microchamber was chemically modified with N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-6-aminohexanoic acid (DNP, MW = 297.27 Da) and has been shown to be able to detect different concentration of anti-dinitrophenyl antibody (anti-DNP, MW = 220 kDa) in buffer solutions. From corresponding calibrations, a detection limit of 1.21x10-10 g/ml by DNP-functionalized TOW-PPR sensor chip for anti-DNP detection is demonstrated. The device can be simply and inexpensively fabricated, and therefore is ideally suitable for disposable plasmonic sensors, especially promising for high-throughput biochemical sensing applications.
Multiplex fiber-optic biosensor implemented by integrating multiple particle plasmon resonances (PPRs), molecular bioassays, and microfluidics is successfully demonstrated. The multiple PPRs are achieved by chemical immobilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) separately on two unclad portions of an optical fiber. The difference in morphology and nature of material of AgNPs and AuNRs are exploited to yield multiple plasmonic absorptions at 405 and 780 nm in the absorption spectrum measured from optical fiber by white light source illumination. Through the coaxial excitation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with 405 and 800 nm wavelengths, the distinct PPRs are advantageous for real-time and simultaneous detection of multiple analyte-probe pairs as AgNPs and AuNRs are separately functionalized with specific bio-probes. Here, the multi-window fiber-optic particle plasmon resonance (FO-PPR) biosensor has been shown to be capable of simultaneously detecting anti-dinitrophenyl antibody (anti-DNP, MW = 220 kDa) via N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-6-aminohexanoic acid (DNP, MW = 297.27 Da) functionalized AgNPs and streptavidin (MW = 75 kDa) via N-(3-aminopropyl)biotinamide trifluoroacetate (biotin, MW = 414.44 Da) functionalized AuNRs. The multiplex sensing chip possesses several advantages, including rapid and parallel detection of multiple analytes on a single chip, minimized sample to sample variation, reduced amount of sensor chip, and reduced analyte volume, hence it is ideally suitable for high-throughput multiplex biochemical sensing applications.
This paper describes the verification of a reproducible, highly sensitive, robust, and reliable SERS active substrate that is
composed of periodic silver nanoparticle arrays encapsulated within large-area (1 in<sup>2</sup>) anodic aluminum oxide films. The
well-organized spherical silver nanoparticles are electro-deposited at the interior bottom of alumina nanochannels. After
chemically removing the residual aluminum, the exposed bottom alumina layer can be adopted as a sensitive SERS
sensor but can avoid the oxidation and sulfidation corrosion of embedded silver. The encapsulated nanoparticle arrays
provide strong and reproducible SERS signals of probe R6G and adenine molecules. The shelf life of the single-process
fabricated SERS substrate is examined and over two months with repeatable SERS measurements and reproducible
SERS signals. Avoiding the complicated and more expensive vacuum deposition process, the cost-effective and single
electrochemical process fabricated SERS active substrate which can retain the most compromise Raman enhancing
power and repeatable uses for at least two months is a promising sensor for a variety of practical applications.