Neural Imaging and Sensing are widely utilized in neuroscience research. The entire technical chain usually includes labeling, imaging, and image processing. Novel techniques are developed in rapid succession, and new applications follows.
This presentation will focus on a bibliometrics study related to the three directions of the emerging neural imaging and sensing techniques. Based on Web of Science and Scopus, the hot topics are easily selected. We will highlight several typical techniques emerged in recent years, and discuss their advantages and specialized applications.
Among those emerging techniques, a new crossdisciplinary field, brainsmatics, is growing up. Brainsmatics is the shorten term of Brain Spatial Informatics, which develops methods and tools for understanding brain based on brain spatial information. In neuroscience, scientific questions are focused and answered mainly in molecular, cellular, genetic, and electrophysiological levels, respectively. A full understanding of the brain calls for the integration of brain information in all levels. To combine all these different level data, the spatial information is the key reference. High resolution and precision positioning are two challenges in brainsmatics, while the image standard and brain-wide coordinate system definition are also important.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in adoptive cell therapy (ACT) by destroying tumor cells. Although some mechanisms of CTLs killing tumor cells have already been revealed, the precise dynamic information of CTLs’ interaction with tumor cells is still not known. Here, we used confocal microscopy to visualize the whole process of how CTLs kill tumor cells in vitro. According to imaging data, CTLs destroyed the target tumor cells rapidly and efficiently. Several CTLs surrounded one or more tumor cells, and the average time for CTLs destroying one or more tumor cells in vitro is dozens of minutes only. Our study displayed the temporal events of CTLs’ interaction with tumor cells at the beginning up to the point of killing them. Furthermore, the imaging data presented strong cytotoxicity of CTLs toward the specific tumor cells. These results could help us to well understand the mechanism of CTLs’ elimination of tumor cells and improve the efficacy of ACT in cancer immunotherapy.
Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10 min . As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided.
Apoptosis plays an essential role in normal organism development which is one of the main types of programmed cell
death to help tissues maintain homeostasis. Defective apoptosis can result in cell accumulation and therefore effects on
tumor pathogenesis, progression and therapy resistance. A family of proteins, known as caspases, is typically activated in
the early stages of apoptosis. Therefore, studying the kinetics of activation of caspases induced by antitumor drugs can
contribute to antitumor drug discovery and explanation of the molecular mechanisms. This paper detected the Caspase-3
activity induced by cisplatin in human adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line (ACC-M), human hepatocellular liver
carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and human epithelial carcinoma cell line (Hela) with stably expressing ECFP-DEVDDsRed
(CD3) probe, a fluorescent probe consisting of Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP), red fluorescent
protein (DsRed) and a linker with a recognition site of Caspase-3, by using the capillary electrophoresis (CE) and
fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging system. Under the same concentration of cisplatin, ACC-M cells
responded the most rapidly, and then HepG2 cells and Hela cells, respectively, in the early 30 hours. Later, HepG2 cells
represented acceleration in the Caspase-3 activation speed and reached full activation the earliest comparing to other two
cell types. The results demonstrated that ACC-M cell is more sensitive than the other two cell types under the treatment