The combination of quantitative coronary analysis and flow reserve measurements enables the clinician to determine whether a coronary artery stenosis is significant and therefore has to be treated. 2-D SPECT polar diagrams are made to get information on cardiac perfusion. However, no real 3-D comparison between the anatomical coronary angiography data and the perfusion information can be made. In this feasibility study a first approach is made to create fusion images in 3-D of angiograms and SPECT data. From biplane coronary arteriograms (CAGs), both left and right coronary arteries of five patients have been reconstructed as 3-D models. The reconstruction output was automatically converted into Virtual Reality Markup Language (VRML) scenes. The 2-D polar SPECT data were mapped onto a half-ellipsoid and added to the VRML scene. Registration of the three models was performed interactively using VRML and common Internet browsers.
SCIAMACHY has been selected for the ESA environmental satellite ENVISAT with the objective to carry out atmospheric research in the UV, VIS, and IR spectral range. The most innovative parts of the instrument are the low- noise InGaAs semiconductor focal plane arrays covering the 1.0-2.4 micrometers wavelength range. For the first time InGaAs focal plane arrays with an extended wavelength range have become space qualified. In this paper theory and measurement of the dark current and noise behavior of these detectors is presented. Each InGaAs focal plane array consists of a 1024 pixel linear photo-detecting sliver and two 512 pixel multiplexing read-out chips. Each multiplexer contains 512 individual charge transimpedance amplifier and correlated double sampling circuits. A cylindrical lens, integrated in the detector housing, focuses the light on detector in the cross-dispersion direction. The InGaAs composition of the detectors is tuned to match the required wavelength range. Measurements have been performed of the dark current and noise as function of temperature and bias voltage in order to relate their performance to theory presented in this paper. InGaAs detectors sensitive to 2400 nm wavelength achieve dark current levels as low as 20-100 fA per detector pixel area of 1.25 (DOT) 10-4 cm2 at an operating temperature of 150 K and a bias voltage of 2 mV. Lower temperatures further reduce the dark current but also decrease the quantum efficiency at long wavelengths, yielding no net gain in performance. The development programme of these SCIAMACHY detectors has been carried out by Epitaxx Inc., for and in cooperation with the Space Research Organization Netherlands.
SCIAMACHY (scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography) is a spectrometer with a wavelength range stretching from the UV (240 nm) to the NIR (2380 nm), addressing the trace gases important in the ozone cycle and the gases involved in global climate change. It is scheduled to fly on ESA's ENVISAT, launch 1998/99. In concept the instrument is similar to the recently launched instrument GOME on ERS-2, which is a scaled- down version of SCIAMACHY. For the UV and visible wavelengths the RL 1024 SR detector arrays of EG&G Reticon are employed, similar to those of GOME. For the detection of wavelengths beyond 1000 nm (not present in GOME) InGaAs is selected as detector material. Up to 1600 nm the lattice-matched In.53Ga.47As is used. For the longer wavelengths, strained-layer InxGa1-xAs, with x between 0.60 and 0.83, has been developed by Epitaxx Inc. (New Jersey). Emphasis during the development was on extending the sensitivity to longer wavelength, whilst keeping the dark current (noise) within acceptable levels. In this paper we present the design and the first performance results of the flight models for all InGaAs focal plane arrays (FPAs). Measurements of the spectral response, dark current and noise are presented, in combination with characteristics of the application-specific capacitive trans-impedance amplifier multiplexer. The performance data of the NIR FPAs have been incorporated in the SCIAMACHY-instrument simulator. As an example of its use, the predicted sensitivity to retrieve CO, N2O and CH4 abundances is given.
The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) onboard the ESA satellite XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror mission) combines a high resolving power (approximately 400 at 0.5 keV) with a large effective area (approximately 200 cm2). The spectral range selected for RGS (5 - 35 angstroms) contains the K shell transitions of N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si and S as well as the important L shell transitions of FE. The resolving power allows the study of a wide variety of challenging scientific questions. Detailed temperature diagnostics are feasible as the ionization balance is a unique function of the distribution of the electron temperature. Density diagnostics are provided by studying He-like triplets where the ratio of the forbidden to intercombination lines varies with density. Other fields of interest include the determination of elemental abundances, the study of optical depth effects, velocity diagnostics by measuring Doppler shifts and the estimate of magnetic fields through the observation of Zeeman splitting. The resolving power is obtained by an array of 240 gratings placed behind the mirrors of the telescope, dispersing about half of the X-rays in two spectroscopic orders. The X-rays are recorded by an array of 9 large format CCDs. These CCDs are operated in the frame transfer mode. They are back illuminated as the quantum efficiency of front illuminated devices is poor at low energies because of their poly-silicon gate structure. To suppress dark current the CCDs are passively cooled. In order to obtain the effective area of about 200 cm2, grating arrays and CCD cameras are placed behind two of the three XMM telescopes. A model of RGS was tested last autumn ('93) at the Panter long beam X-ray facility in Munich. The model consisted of a subset of four mirrors, eight representative gratings covering a small section of the inner mirror shells and a CCD camera containing three CCDs. The purpose of these tests was to verify the resolution and sensitivity of the instrument as a function of X-ray energy. Extensive simulations, using a Monte Carlo raytracing code, are used to interpret these tests. Preliminary results of these tests will be discussed and compared to the calculated response.