Melanoma, developing from melanocytes, is the most serious type of skin cancer. Circulating melanoma cells, the prognosis marker for metastasis, are present in the circulation at the early stage. Thus, quantitative detection of rare circulating melanoma cells is essential for monitoring tumor metastasis and prognosis evaluation. Compared with in vitro assays, in vivo flow cytometry is able to identify circulating tumor cells without drawing blood. Here, we built in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry based on the high absorption coefficient of melanoma cells, which is applied to labelfree counting of circulating melanoma cells in tumor-bearing mice.