Teledyne has a well-established heritage of supplying sensors for Earth observation space missions. Since early involvement in the SPOT satellites and Envisat, the French and UK Teledyne 2v sites have continued to develop sensors for Earth observation satellite suppliers and space agencies. For high-resolution imaging, panchromatic and multispectral TDI CCDs have been developed as the main sensors for the PLEIADES satellites and subsequent follow on Earth-imaging missions. The latest TDI CCD developed in combination with the ESA Enhanced CCD Design and Process ESCC Evaluation is presented, the CCD283-00 has 8μm anti-blooming pixels, multi-TDI stage integration time selection and multiple outputs for fast line advance time up to 5 kHz at 10 MHz pixel readout. The next generation of CMOS TDI sensors under design are described, with on-chip charge domain signal TDI combined with CMOS on-chip digital outputs. For Earth science, Teledyne e2v is a major contributor to the Copernicus Programme, successfully packaging and testing Sentinel-2 CMOS sensors and delivery of Sentinel-3 CCDs. For the recently launched Sentnel-5P TROPOMI hyperspectral imaging instrument, a custom CCD275 sensor was designed. Details are presented describing the improved radiation hardness, fast frame transfer design for up to 750ns per line and high UV and NIR quantum efficiency. For the next generation MTG and MetOp satellites, an overview is given of the Sentinel-4 UVN spectrometer, the Sentinel-5 UVNS and 3MI CCD sensors. Customised CMOS sensors specifically designed for space by Teledyne-e2v are in development for the MTG FCI and for MetOp. Details and progress are presented.
Euclid-VIS is the large format visible imager for the ESA Euclid space mission in their Cosmic Vision program, scheduled for launch in 2021. Together with the near infrared imaging within the NISP instrument, it forms the basis of the weak lensing measurements of Euclid. VIS will image in a single r+i+z band from 550-900 nm over a field of view of ~0.5 deg<sup>2</sup> . By combining 4 exposures with a total of 2260 sec, VIS will reach to deeper than mAB=24.5 (10s) for sources with extent ~0.3 arcsec. The image sampling is 0.1 arcsec. VIS will provide deep imaging with a tightly controlled and stable point spread function (PSF) over a wide survey area of 15000 deg<sup>2</sup> to measure the cosmic shear from nearly 1.5 billion galaxies to high levels of accuracy, from which the cosmological parameters will be measured. In addition, VIS will also provide a legacy dataset with an unprecedented combination of spatial resolution, depth and area covering most of the extra-Galactic sky. Here we will present the results of the study carried out by the Euclid Consortium during the period up to the beginning of the Flight Model programme
Teledyne e2v continues to develop sensors for ground-based and space applications. These are back-thinned for high QE, exhibit low noise, and other high performance specifications. Large sets of such CCDs have been supplied for space missions- including GAIA and EUCLID, with the ESA PLATO program underway. We also highlight a new 2k2k CMOS space imager. Other examples of CMOS sensors for space missions will be shown. High red sensitivity remains important and CCD and CMOS sensors are presented with enhanced red wavelength quantum efficiency. An exciting new capability for back-biased CMOS imagers with significantly enhanced red-sensitivity is presented. It is now possible to supply CMOS sensors with comparable performance to CCDs. Performance information and the final design will be shown for two CMOS sensors- a 2k4k imager and an 800X800 wave-front sensor. Both are back-thinned and have very low readout noise. Finally, we present information on a sub-electron noise CMOS sensor.
<i>Euclid</i>-VIS is the large format visible imager for the ESA <i>Euclid</i> space mission in their Cosmic Vision program,
scheduled for launch in 2020. Together with the near infrared imaging within the NISP instrument, it forms the basis of
the weak lensing measurements of <i>Euclid</i>. VIS will image in a single <i>r+i+z</i> band from 550-900 nm over a field of view
of ~0.5 deg<sup>2</sup>. By combining 4 exposures with a total of 2260 sec, VIS will reach to deeper than mAB=24.5 (10σ) for
sources with extent ~0.3 arcsec. The image sampling is 0.1 arcsec. VIS will provide deep imaging with a tightly
controlled and stable point spread function (PSF) over a wide survey area of 15000 deg<sup>2</sup> to measure the cosmic shear
from nearly 1.5 billion galaxies to high levels of accuracy, from which the cosmological parameters will be measured. In
addition, VIS will also provide a legacy dataset with an unprecedented combination of spatial resolution, depth and area
covering most of the extra-Galactic sky. Here we will present the results of the study carried out by the <i>Euclid</i>
Consortium during the period up to the Critical Design Review.
The European Space Agency (ESA) and e2v, together with the Euclid Imaging Consortium, have designed and manufactured pre-development models of a novel imaging detector for the visible channel of the Euclid space telescope. The new detector is an e2v back-illuminated, 4k x 4k, 12 micron square pixel CCD designated CCD273-84. The backilluminated detectors have been characterised for many critical performance parameters such as read noise, charge transfer efficiency, quantum efficiency, Modulation Transfer Function and Point Spread Function. Initial analysis of the MTF and PSF performance of the detectors has been performed by e2v and at MSSL and the results have enabled the Euclid VIS CCD project to move in to the C/D or flight phase delivery contract. This paper describes the CCD273-84 detector, the test method used for MTF measurements at e2v and the test method used for PSF measurements at MSSL. Results are presented for MTF measurements at e2v over all pre development devices. Also presented is a cross comparison of the data from the MTF and PSF measurement techniques on the same device. Good agreement between the measured PSF Full Width Half Maximum and the equivalent Full Width Half Maximum derived from the MTF images and test results is shown, with results that indicate diffusion FWHM values at or below 10 micron for the CCD273-84 detectors over the spectral range measured. At longer wavelengths the diffusion FWHM is shown to be in the 6-8 micron range.
We present recent development in the technology of silicon sensors for astronomical applications. Novel CCD and CMOS sensors have been designed for low noise and high sensitivity astronomical use. High resistivity sensors allow thicker silicon for higher red sensitivity in several types of new CCD. The capability to manufacture large sets of CCDs to form large focal planes has allowed several very large mosaics to be built for astronomy with increasing formats on the ground and in space. In addition to supplying sensors we discuss increasing capacity and interest in the commercial supply of integrated “camera” systems.
The European Space Agency has funded e2v’s development of an image sensor for the visible instrument in the Euclid
space telescope. Euclid has been selected for a medium class mission launch opportunity in 2020. The project aims to
map the dark universe with two complementary methods; a galaxy red-shift survey and weak gravitational lensing using near infrared and visible instruments. The baseline for the visible instrument was to be the CCD203-82, which has been successfully flown on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. However, to optimise the device for Euclid, e2v have designed and manufactured the CCD273-84. This device has a higher-responsivity lower-noise amplifier, enhanced red response, parallel charge injection structures and narrower registers which improve low signal charge transfer efficiency. Development models for Euclid have been manufactured with a thinner gate dielectric than standard for improved tolerance to ionising radiation. This paper describes the imager sensor in detail and focuses on the novel aspects of the device, package and interface.