We demonstrate the use of liquid crystal infiltration of fishnet structures for the realization of highly tunable and
nonlinear optical metamaterials. We show that fishnet metamaterials infiltrated with nematic liquid crystals can exhibit
strong nonlinear response at moderate laser powers. We also show that this nonlinear response arises due to the
molecular orientation of the liquid crystal molecules and can be therefore be fine-tuned with an electric field, opening
new opportunities for electrically tunable nonlinear metamaterials.
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) promise improved performance over existing technologies in the form of higher temperature operation and normal-incidence detection. Variation in the size of self-assembled quantum dots leads to a broadened spectral response, which is undesirable for multi-color detection. Photonic crystal slabs can filter the transmission of normally-incident light using Fano resonances, and thus may be integrated with QDIPs to create a narrowband detector. Finite-difference time-domain simulations were used to optimize such a filter for QDIPs grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The simulations predict that the integrated detector could show up to 76% decrease in the detector linewidth, with a tunable peak location. These devices were then fabricated by standard optical lithography, however the spectral width of the integrated device was similar to that of the unfiltered QDIP. This is attributed to imperfections in the filter, so alternative fabrication methods are discussed for future processing.
Post-growth techniques such as impurity-free vacancy disordering (IFVD) are simple and effective avenues to monolithic integration of optoelectonic components. Sputter deposition of encapsulant films can enhance quantum well intermixing through IFVD and an additional mechanism involving surface damage during the sputtering process. In this study, these two mechanisms were compared in a multi-quantum well structure. The compositions of different silicon oxy-nitride films were controlled by sputter deposition in different ambient gases. These different encapsulants were used to initiate IFVD in the same heterostructure and the observed intermixing is compared to the film properties.