An interferometer is an essential subsystem of the Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). We describe an FTS instrument to operate at the surface of Mars based on a Michelson interferometer with hollow retroreflectors. The instrument will operate in two different regimes, observing the solar disc through the atmosphere to measure trace gases, and measuring the thermal emission from the atmosphere to study the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The interferometer has an aperture of 1 inch, operates in the spectral range 1.7-17 μm, and features low mass and volume (≤1 kg with all necessary subsystems). Beam splitter and compensator are made of potassium bromide (KBr). A single-axis robot with stepper motor drive provides a linear movement of the retroreflector (the speed stability is about 2%) and enables a maximal optical path difference (MOPD) of 15 cm. A reference channel with a distributed-feedback laser diode (0.76 μm) and a photodiode (Si) supports the interferogram sampling and the speed stabilization loop. The time to measure one interferogram with a best spectral resolution of about 0.05 cm–1 is 500 s (the sun tracking regime). In the thermal sounding regime, one measurement of a two-side interferogram (with the spectral resolution of ~1 cm–1) takes less than 1 min. Laboratory calibrations with a black body and a laser confirm the design parameters of the instrument.
Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) is a part of Russian contribution to ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) ESA-Roscosmos mission. ACS includes three separate infrared spectrometers (MIR, NIR and TIRVIM) with a different spectral coverage and targeted to the different science goals. ACS TIRVIM is a Fourier-transform spectrometer based on 2-inch double pendulum interferometer. It operates in the spectral range of 1.7-7 μm with the best spectral resolution 0.13 cm-1 for solar occultation (SO) mode and 0.8 cm-1 for nadir mode. In nadir mode TIRVIM is purposed to thermal sounding of the Martian atmosphere and aerosol properties retrieval. In SO mode TIRVIM is dedicated to trace gases measurements complementing to ACS MIR. After successful launch of ExoMars TGO on 16 April 2016 there were three time slots for turning on science instruments during cruise phase to execute necessary checks and calibration measurements. In March 2018 the nominal science orbit was reached after cruise and aerobraking phases. The first results of TIRVIM data processing show high performance of the instrument.
Fourier-spectrometer TIRVIM is a part of ACS spectral complex aboard Mars-Express orbiter spacecraft. TIRVIM spectral range is 2–16 micron. It can operate as a spectrometer – with the Sun as a standard radiation source (“occultation” mode) or as a spectro-radiometer (“nadir” mode). In occultation mode the spectral resolution is 0.2 cm-1, in nadir mode – 1.3 cm-1. The main scientific objective of the occultation mode is to search for atmosphere minor constituents, of the nadir mode – to monitor the Mars atmosphere vertical thermal profile (by 15-micron CO2 band). The occultation mode is self-calibrated. For absolute calibration in the nadir mode TIRVIM has a rotating inlet flat mirror (single-axis foreoptic) able to point the FOV (2º) to nadir, space, built-in black-body or to another direction in the plane. TIRVIM mass is 12 kg, the power consumption is 15 W.
This work is devoted to the study of solar light that experiences single and multiple scattering in the atmosphere at the twilight time. The work is based on polarimetric observations of the twilight sky that were conducted in 1997 and 2000 for different color bands. Basing on the results of observations, the contribution of single-scattered light depending on the wavelength for the light stage of twilight is obtained. The correlation of color and polarization properties of the twilight sky is investigated with an account of multiple scattering.