Identifying methane anomalies responsible for the temperature increase, by hiking trails in the Arctic requires great human labor. It is necessary to use lidar methods for search and identification of methane from permafrost. Necessary to create a Raman lidar for monitoring of emissions of methane hydrate from the permafrost. Hyperspectral resolution would resolve the isotope shifts in the Stokes spectra, thereby to determine the isotopic composition of methane ratio C<sup>14</sup>/C<sup>12</sup> CH<sub>4 </sub>carbon emissions and identify the source for study (permafrost or oil deposits)
The experimental results presented in this study focused on the study of biological processes caused by exposure to the coating layers of the laser green light seed (λ = 532 nm) range for the larch, violet (λ = 405 nm) and red (λ = 640 nm) for spruce. Spend a series of experiments to study the dependence of crop seed quality (spruce and larch from the pine family) from exposure to laser radiation under different conditions. In all the analyzed groups studied seed germination and growth of seedlings exposed to laser exposure, compared with the control group. The results showed that the higher percentage of germination than seeds of the control group.
Experimental results presented in this study tends to explore viruses in the water for their further decontamination under the influence of laser radiation (λ=220-390 nm). Conducted a series of experiments to study the dependence of water quality from the effects of laser radiation. Correlation between degree of survival of viruses and power density. The results showed that all the analyzed samples of water is clearing from bacteria to 98%. Preliminary tests of the prototype laboratory system UFOVI has opened up new opportunities for water sterilizing.
Identifying methane anomalies responsible for the temperature increase, by hiking trails in the Arctic requires great human labor .According to the tentative forecast by the year 2100 Arctic permafrost will greatly deteriorate, which will have numerous consequences. Indeed, release of less than 0.1% of the organic carbon stored in the upper 100-meter permafrost level (approximately 10000 ppm of carbon in the СН4 form) can double concentration of atmospheric methane, which is roughly 20 times more potent greenhouse gas than the CO2. Necessary to create a Raman lidar for monitoring of emissions of methane hydrate from the permafrost.
The power consumption in the two-pulse bispectral primary source could be substantially decreased by replacing the SRS converters from 1.06 μm into 10.6 μm wavelength as the preamplifier cascades in СО2 laser channel at the same efficiency radiation of EUV source. The creation of high volume manufacturing lithography facilities with the technological standard of 10-20 nm is related to the implementation of resist exposure modes with pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz. Low power consumption of the proposed scheme makes it promising for the creation of LPP EUV sources.
The lenses with coaxial mirrors allow obtain NA values up to of 0.8 and demagnification β ≥10. The larger β value leads to the mask cost reducing, as in this case, the elements of the IC pattern template can be made bigger and, therefore, with fewer defects. Сoaxial schemes can engender a problem of the image plane shift beyond the projection lens element boundaries near the wafer. The projection lens consisting of four coaxial mirrors with NA= 0.485 and s = 12 combined with the ”Vanguard” imaging subsystem have been designed. According to the computation the circuit features at 10 nm in center and 20 nm on the edge of 12.4 mm field of view can be imaged.
Currently there is a situation that makes it difficult to provide the population with quality drinking water for the sanitary-hygienic requirements. One of the urgent problems is the need for water disinfection. Since the emergence of microorganisms that are pathogens transmitted through water such as typhoid, cholera, etc. requires constant cleansing of waters against pathogenic bacteria. In the water treatment process is destroyed up to 98% of germs, but among the remaining can be pathogenic viruses, the destruction of which requires special handling. As a result, the conducted research the following methods have been proposed for combating harmful microorganisms: sterilization of water by laser radiation and using a UV lamp.
The experimental results presented in this study are the early studies of germination on the example of Picea abies and were aimed at testing the germination of seeds and the development of morphology, caused a therapeutic effect on the laser radiation field in the early stages of development under the action of ultraviolet and red light in the spectral range of 405 nm and 640 nm. A set of seeds irradiated at various energy doses within the same time. The experimental results analyzed in parallel with control group. In all analyzed seeds were studied the germination and growth of seedlings. The results showed that the percentage of germination higher than control group Samanids all of the recurrence options.
One of the highly effective methods of operative remote environmental monitoring on land and water surfaces is laser sensing. It knew that the Raman scattering cross section is very small (10<sup>-25</sup>-10<sup>-27</sup>), so in some cases radiation back into captivity to the target could be a few tens of photons. For high-speed sensing, speed of processing and ease of use lidar units required for the use of appropriate hardware and software systems used for the decision of tasks of collecting, processing, storing, organizing large amounts of data.
Cited a measuring operation for determining the geometric characteristics of objects in space and geodetic survey objects on the ground. In the course of the work, data were obtained on a relative positioning of the pylons in space. There are deviations from verticality. In comparison with traditional surveying this testing method is preferable because it allows you to get in semi-automated mode, the CAD model of the object is high for subsequent analysis that is more economical-ly advantageous.
Over the past 100 years, the rate of temperature in the Arctic increases almost twice higher than the average rate of warming of the planet. Identifying methane anomalies responsible for the temperature increase, by hiking trails in the Arctic requires great human labor. It is necessary to use lidar methods for search and identification of methane from permafrost. Necessary to create a Raman lidar for monitoring of emissions of methane hydrate from the permafrost. Hyperspectral resolution would resolve the isotope shifts in the Stokes spectra, thereby to determine the isotopic composition of methane ratio C<sup>14</sup>/C<sup>12</sup> CH<sub>4</sub> carbon emissions and identify the source for study (permafrost or oil deposits)
We have demonstrated airborne lidar possessing spectral resolution λ/Δλ ≥ 1000. Its ultraspectral resolution is provided by the dual polychromator based on large-sized stigmatic holographic gratings. The lidar was tested in a real-life flight conditions at the transcontinental gas pipeline. It has performed aero search of leaks and measurements of the leaked gas concentration.
We present novel experimental method for estimation of the light penetration depth (LPD) in turbid media based on the
analysis of the cross-correlation function of speckle patterns. Under certain illumination conditions, the amplitude of the
correlation function is strongly dependent on the penetration depth. Presented theoretical model based on the Bragg
diffraction from the thick holograms allows LPD estimation if only one parameter of the material, namely refractive
index, of the material is known. However, qualitative LPD comparison is possible without knowledge of the material
properties. Feasibility of the method was checked experimentally. Experimental results were additionally verified by
alternative experimental method.
In this paper we propose novel method possessing high fidelity and versatility for surface defect detection based on the
spatially filtered dynamic speckles. It is shown that resolution of proposed method depends on the geometrical
parameters of the optical system. The feasibility of the novel method for surface defect detection is demonstrated by
experimental results which are in good agreement with theoretical estimations.