An optical system consisting of an aqueous electrolyte resting on a polymer/gold/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) layer
deposited onto a glass substrate is analyzed to acquire contact angle - focal distance data as a function of applied
voltage. The shape factor of a liquid lens and its dependence on the perimeter of contact line and contact angle was
analyzed in the presence of an electrical field applied between the electrolyte and planar electrode system. The contact
angle of a liquid on a thin, transparent film of gold (20 nm thick) - on ITO under electrolyte solution could be varied
from 110 ± 3° when the gold was held at -2.4 V to 41 ± 3° without voltage. The behavior of a water-based electrolyte
and water-soluble polymer blend and its influence on the shape of contact line and profile of the lens were investigated
by employing a holographic setup at wavelengths of 632.8 and 543.5 nm. Optical micrographs showing the profile of the
lens, aberration-less aperture, deformation of contact line, and shape of the liquid lens, respectively, were analyzed in
reflection and transmission. Both the advancing and receding contact angles were measured directly from digitized
images of the profile of the lens. The dynamic range of linear beam steering and dependence of the focal length of the
liquid lens on the applied voltage are discussed.
Throughout the paper, the concept of the planar 1D lay-out of kxk-switches and the concept of its compact double- layer/multi-layer counterpart will be presented and experimental results analyzed for k equals 4. The paper presents the construction and treats of the working principles of switching system that can operate with minimum number of stages. A reduction of the number of stages is obtained due to combination of the electro-optic (EO) polymer films on the isotropic substrate. The optical switches are collected in one optical layer and each layer composes of at most two 2 by 2 switches simultaneously active. Poly film doped with azo dye and para-nitro- aniline/polyvinyl alcohol were used for the EO films preparation. Thereby switching is applied horizontally and vertically. The scheme of such a 4 by 4 switch in double- layer technique has been presented.
Integrated-optical demultiplexer using 2D gradient waveguide and layer of polymer organic thin film is proposed and demonstrated for the single-mode transmission system. The technology used to fabricate the components of the optical scheme is described and performance characterization are discussed. By determining appropriate diffusion parameters to obtain excellent dimensional match between waveguides for the different wavelength and simultaneously low propagation loss. These successful characteristics are realized by the introduction of the additional polymer thin film structure.
Throughout the paper, the concept of the planar 1-D lay-out (one layer) of kXk-switches and the concept of its compact double-layer/multi-layer counterpart will be presented and experimental results analysed for k equals 4. The paper presents the construction and treats of the working principles of switching system that can operate with minimum number of stages. A reduction of the number of stages is obtained due to combination of the electro-optic (EO) polymer films on the isotropic substrate. The optical switches are collected in one optical layer and each layer composes of at most two 2X2- switches simultaneously active. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film doped with azo dye and para-nitro- aniline/polyvinyl alcohol (p-N-An/PVA) were used for the EO films preparation. Thereby switching is applied horizontally (use one layer only) and vertically (between the two layers). The scheme of such a 4X4-switch in double-layer technique has been presented.
A nonblocking integrated holographic space switch has been realized in a lithium niobate channel-planar-channel composite waveguide. Holograms were recorded from above the waveguide using light at 514 nm. Required reconfiguration time for switching between output ports is 0.12 ms.
We report on the performance of a 8 X 8 polarization-independent LiNbO3 switch matrix on the base directional coupler with its full complement of the local area network (LAND). In this network the random access method with the exclusion of collisions has been applied. Such optical transmitting medium in LAN with a through-put up to 200 Mbit/sec has been realized by the authors.
The light propagation in channel waveguides, formed by silver ion-exchange in glass using dielectric and metallic masks, has been studied. It is shown that the variation of the mode interference pattern with formation process parameters can be predicted with good accuracy using a proposed model of diffusion coefficient dependence on diffusate concentration for solving the exchange equation and computing modes of the resulting refractive-index profile. It is found that the quasi-periodic nature of light propagation in the waveguides is determined by the interference of several lowest even waveguide modes and it is very dependent on the diffusion aperture width.