In this study, we introduce a newly developed Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) family that is
manufactured using a novel ionic exchange membrane-a randomly sulfonated fluoropoly(ether amide)
(TFIPA-90)-as the base material. The thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the ionic polymer were
probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Electrochemical
properties and the actuation performance of the TFIPA-90 based IPMCs were also investigated in this study.
The stiffness of the TFIPA polymer was significantly higher than that of Nafion® and much noted at high
temperatures (>100 oC). The thermal behavior of the TFIPA polymer also showed better stability than Nafion<sup>(R)</sup>
at high temperatures due to the more rigid chemical structure of the ionomer. As an actuator, a new IPMC
prepared from TFIPA-90 showed improved performance with rapid response time to the electric field and a
large bending displacement. The TFIPA-based IPMC may be useful for microwave-driven robotic
In this paper we are reporting a newely developed IPMC fabrication method, "IPMC Paint", which can be directly
sprayed onto any complex surface. In order to fabricate the IPMC paint, liquid Nafion<sup>TM</sup> was used for the ionic
conducting polymer instead of the typical film/sheet type Nafion<sup>TM</sup>. The viscosity of liquid Nafion<sup>TM</sup> was adjusted by
adding Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to perform spray painting. Modified Nafion was sprayed onto the conducting
substrate, Polyfoil<sup>TM</sup> which acts as base electrode layer. After three times spraying, ionic polymer layer has 45 μm
thickness and 10 μm of surface roughness. Sensing tests show that IPMC paint sensor has more sensitivity (± 0.06 of
producing voltage) than that of the typical IPMC (± 0.005 of producing voltage) when dynamic bending with 10 Hz
frequency and 1.3 cm of displacement is applied to.
The electromechanical performance of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) in which one elastomer network is
under high tension balanced by compression of the second network, were investigated. Uniaxial stress relaxation
analysis confirmed significant decrease in viscoelasticity in comparison with 3M VHB films, the primary component
network in the IPN films. In dynamic mechanical analysis, the IPN composite showed a higher mechanical efficiency,
suggesting delayed relaxation of the acrylic chains in the presence of IPN formation. This improvement was found to be
dependant on the contents of poly(TMPTMA). Actuation performance without mechanical prestrain showed that these
IPN electroelastomers had demonstrated high elastic strain energy density (3.5 MJ/m<sup>3</sup>) and a high electromechanical
coupling factor (93.7%). These enhanced electromechanical performances indicate that IPN electroelastomer should be
suitable for diverse applications.
In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of various type ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) and Pt,
Au, Pd, and Pt electroded ionic liquid (IL-Pt) IPMCs, by testing tensile modulus and dynamic mechanical behavior. The
SEM was utilized to investigate the characteristics of the doped electroding layer, and the DSC was probed in order to
look into the thermal behavior of various types of IPMCs. Au IPMCs, having a 5~7 &mgr;m doped layer and nano-sized Au
particles (<i>ca</i>. 10 nm), showed the highest tensile strength (56 MPa) and modulus (602 MPa) in a dried condition. In a
thermal behavior, Au IPMC has the highest <i>T<sub>g</sub></i> (153°C) and <i>T<sub>m</sub> </i>(263°C) in both the DMA and DSC results. The fracture
behavior of various types IPMCs followed base material's behavior, Nafion<sup>TM</sup>, which is represented as the
semicrystalline polymer characteristic.
For military applications, the availability of safe, disposable, and robust infusion pumps for intravenous fluid and drug
delivery would provide a significant improvement in combat healthcare. To meet these needs, we have developed a
miniature infusion prototype pump for safe and accurate fluid and drug delivery that is programmable, lightweight, and
disposable. In this paper we present techniques regarding inter-digitated IPMCs and a scaleable IPMC that exhibits
significantly improved force performance over the conventional IPMCs. The results of this project will be a low cost
accurate infusion device that can be scaled from a disposable small volume liquid drug delivery patch to disposable large
volume fluid resuscitation infusion pumps for trauma victims in both the government and private sectors of the health
The main objective of the current research work is to evaluate 2-D transient temperature distribution in an Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC). Most of the prior work on IPMC concentrated on its ability as actuators and sensors. The effect of temperature distribution due to applied voltage in an IPMC composite has not been studied earlier and is the main subject of the current research. In determining the temperature distribution in IPMC, FEMLAB 3.1 software was used for modeling purpose. In developing the model the IPMC is assumed to be at room temperature. In developing the model platinum and Nafion are assumed to be in perfect thermal contact. The data obtained form the model showed that a maximum temperature rise was seen at the regions where the heat flux was applied (near the electrode) and the rest of the IPMC has shown no significant rise in temperature. This may be attributed to Nafion's very poor thermal conductivity and very high specific heat capacity.
The multi-fields responsive ionic polymer-metal composites, which have wide applications such as actuators, sensors and dampers in one body, are synthesized through an in-situ standard ion-exchange method using Ni particles doped on a Nafion<sup>TM</sup> film. SEM, EDS, and XRD were utilized for revealing their crystal shape and type. Also dynamic mechanical analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, and cyclic voltammetry were used to investigate the mechanical, magnetic, and electrical properties of the Ni doped ionic polymer-metal composites. The nano-sized Ni particles (<i>ca</i>. 300 nm) were synthesized on the Nafion<sup>TM</sup> film with 2.5 μm layer. The Ni doped ionic polymer-metal composites demonstrated good magnetic, electric and electro-mechanical responses.