Interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with transparent materials is a powerful technique of modification of material properties for various technological applications. The physics behind laser-induced modification phenomenon is rich and still far from complete understanding. We present an overview of our models developed to describe processes induced by ultrashort laser pulses inside and on the surface of bulk glass. The most sophisticated model consists of two parts. The first part solves Maxwell’s equations supplemented by the rate and hydrodynamics equations for free electrons. The model resolves spatiotemporal dynamics of free-electron population and yields the absorbed energy map. The latter serves as an initial condition for thermoelastoplastic simulations of material redistribution. The simulations performed for a wide range of irradiation conditions have allowed to clarify timescales at which modification occurs after single laser pulses. Simulations of spectrum of laser light scattered by laser-generated plasma revealed considerable blueshifting which increases with pulse energy. To gain insight into temperature evolution of a glass material under the surface irradiation conditions, we employ a model based on the rate equation describing free electron generation coupled with the energy equations for electrons and lattice. Swift heating of electron and lattice subsystems to extremely high temperatures at fs timescale has been found at laser fluences exceeding the threshold fluence by 2-3 times that can result in efficient bremsstrahlung emission from the irradiation spot. The mechanisms of glass ablation with ultrashort laser pulses are discussed by comparing with the experimental data. Finally, a model is outlined, developed for multi-pulse irradiation regimes, which enables gaining insight into the roles of defects and heat accumulation.
Raman spectroscopy is a useful technique in the identification and characterisation of compounds, but in terms of
sensitivity its application is limited. With respect to this the discovery of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)
phenomenon has proved monumental, and much research has been carried out over the past 30 years developing the
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SERS is an ideal technique to identify these compounds, and both nanoparticle suspensions and pulsed laser deposited
nanoparticle substrates have been used to examine the spectra of xanthopterin, both in aqueous solution and in different