Investigating long-term fatal corrosion of turquoise lead-potassium historic glass beads, we have detected micro and nano crystallites of orthorhombic KSbOSiO4 (KSS) in glass. We have come to conclusion that KSS precipitates and their clusters give rise to internal glass corrosion. K and Sb being glass dopants form KSS crystallites during glass melt cooling; tensile strain arising in the glass matrix during cooling gives rise to glass cracking and eventually to its rupture and formation of heterogeneous grains. The strain-induced diffusion of impurities, resembling internal gettering in the Si technology, explains changes in glass color. We have also detected Pb2Fe0.5Sb1.5O6.5 nano crystallites in stable yellow lead glass beads. The number density and the sizes of these crystallites are much less than those of the KSS crystallites in turquoise lead-potassium glass, they do not form large clusters; internal cracks also has not been observed in this glass. This may explain the stability of yellow lead glass. The study may be useful for predicting long-term stability of technical glasses as well as for synthesis of nano-KSS/glass composites.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra of proteins with significantly different structures are measured in a spectral interval of 50 to 500 cm−1 and noticeable spectral differences are revealed. Intensities of several spectral bands correlate with contents of secondary structure elements. FTIR spectra of superhelical proteins exhibit developed spectral features that are absent in the spectra of globular proteins. Significant differences of the Raman spectra of proteins that are not directly related to the difference of the secondary structures can be due to differences of tertiary and/or quaternary structure of protein molecules.