We report a dramatic increase in the photoluminescence (PL) emitted from InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QW), obtained by covering these sample surface with thin metallic films. Remarkable enhancements of PL peak intensities were obtained from In0.3Ga0.7N QWs with 50 nm thick silver and aluminum coating with 10 nm GaN spacer. These PL enhancements can be attributed to strong interaction between QWs and surface plasmons (SPs). No such enhancements were obtained from samples coated with gold, as its well-known plasmon resonance occurs only at longer wavelengths. We also showed that QW-SP coupling increase the internal quantum efficiencies by measuring the temperature dependence of PL intensities. QW-SP coupling is a very promising method for developing the super bright light emitting diodes (LEDs). Moreover, we found that the metal nano-structure is very important facto to decide the light extraction. A possible mechanism of QW-SP coupling and emission enhancement has been developed, and high-speed and efficient light emission is predicted for optically as well as electrically pumped light emitters.
We show recent results of GaN based LEDs, the high efficiency blue LED, the high efficacy white LED, the high color rendering LED, the warm white LED, and the high output power 365-nm UV LED. The output power and the external efficiency of the high efficiency blue LED at 20 mA were 19.3 mW and 35.8%, respectively. Moreover, the lifetime of the molded this lamp was improved. For the high efficacy white LED using this high efficiency blue LED, the correlated color temperature (CCT) and the luminous efficacy (ηL) at 20 mA were 5470 K and 61.4 lm/W, respectively. This luminous efficacy is close to that of a fluorescent lamp. When the high color rendering LED using new red phosphor and shorter-YAG was operated at 20 mA, the CCT, ηL and the general color rendering index (Ra) were 4670 K, 28.3 lm/W and 87.7, respectively. In particular, the red color reproduction was improved. For the warm white, the CCT, ηL and Ra at 20 mA were 2830 K, 18.9 lm/W and 87.5, respectively. It can be used as a replacement for incandescent bulbs. When the high output power 365-nm UV LED was operated at a forward bias direct current (DC) of 500 mA, Po and ηex were 210 mW and 12.4%, respectively.
High-efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting red, amber, green, blue and ultraviolet light have been obtained through the use of an InGaN active layers. The localized energy states caused by In composition fluctuation in the InGaN active layer seem to be related to the high efficiency of the InGaN-based emitting devices in spite of having a large number of threading dislocations (TDs). InGaN single-quantum-well-structure blue LEDs were grown on epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN (ELOG) and sapphire substrates. The characteristics of both LEDs was almost same. These results indicate that the dislocation doesn't affect the efficiency practically.
Recently, the development of high-power light source using GaN-based LEDs has become active. In such high-power LEDs, the density of forward current is much higher than that of past LEDs. Therefore, an advantage of carrier localization in InGaN active layer becomes small, because of band filling under high injection level. This means that reducing the density of TDs becomes important, just like GaN-based laser diodes. Also, we show recent results of GaN-based LEDs.