Nano gold particles interact strongly with visible light to excite the collaborative oscillation of conductive electrons within nano particles resulting in a surface plasmon resonance which makes them useful for various applications including bio-labeling. In this paper, we study the effect of particle sizes with particle plasmon resonant wavelength and the coupling between pair of elliptical metallic disks and ellipsoid particles by simulations and experiments. The red-shift resonant peak wavelength of coupled particles to that of single particle is due to particle plasmons near-field coupling. The shift decays is approximately exponentially with increasing particle spacing, and reaches zero when the gap between the two particles exceeds about 2.5 times the particle short axis length. It is also found that the exponential decay of peak shift with particle gap is size independent but shape dependent.
We present a detailed description of the apparatus and techniques that we have utilized in our experimental study of individual plas on resonant nanoparticles,along with a brief description of some major results. The apparatus consists of a spectroscopic system combined with a modified darkfield microscope, which enables the user to sequentially select individual resonant nanostructures in the microscopic field of view for spectroscopic study. Plasmon resonant
nanostructures scatter light elastically,and typically have very large scattering cross-sections at their resonant optical
wavelengths. In general, spectra can be obtained with acquisition times between .1 to 30 seconds,and color images can be captured using consumer digital color cameras. Spheres,tetrahedrons,and pentagonal platelets were fabricated using colloidal chemistry techniques. To produce highly anisotropic structures such as nanorods and "barbells", templates were used. Many of these nanostructures have been individually spectroscopically characterized,and their spectra correlated with their shape and size as determined by transmission electron icroscope (TEM). The unique shape,size,
composition,and dielectric surroundings of the individual plasmon resonant nanostructures determine their plasmon resonant behavior. We will show how the composition of the substrate on which the particles are immobilized and the dielectric of the surrounding medium have a significant effect on the plasmon resonance of the individual particles.
The large scattering cross section of plasmon resonant gold and silver nanoparticles functionalized with the appropriate ligand allows for sensitive and specific detection of nucleic acids and proteins. By varying the size, shape, and material morphology populations with a specific peak plasmon resonance can be prepared. By varying the order and length of plasmon resonant bar segment in a composite nanowire one can obtain a large number of particle populations. Distinct populations can be used for labels for multiplexing or as a platform for biological assays. An larger number of color populations can be obtained with composite nanowires that are fabricated with various lengths of silver, gold, or nickel segments. The order and length of the different plasmon resonance rod segments can be used to uniquely identify a rod population allowing for a large degree of multiplexing within a single sample.