Non contact spatial resolved oxygenation measurements remain an open challenge in the biomedical field and non contact patient monitoring. Although point measurements are the clinical standard till this day, regional differences in the oxygenation will improve the quality and safety of care. Recent developments in spectral imaging resulted in spectral filter array cameras (SFA). These provide the means to acquire spatial spectral videos in real-time and allow a spatial approach to spectroscopy. In this study, the performance of a 25 channel near infrared SFA camera was studied to obtain spatial oxygenation maps of hands during an occlusion of the left upper arm in 7 healthy volunteers. For comparison a clinical oxygenation monitoring system, INVOS, was used as a reference. In case of the NIRS SFA camera, oxygenation curves were derived from 2-3 wavelength bands with a custom made fast analysis software using a basic algorithm. Dynamic oxygenation changes were determined with the NIR SFA camera and INVOS system at different regional locations of the occluded versus non-occluded hands and showed to be in good agreement. To increase the signal to noise ratio, algorithm and image acquisition were optimised. The measurement were robust to different illumination conditions with NIR light sources. This study shows that imaging of relative oxygenation changes over larger body areas is potentially possible in real time.
Optical non-contact measurements in general, and chromophore concentration estimation in particular, have been identified to be useful tools for skin assessment. Spectral estimation using a low cost hand held device has not been studied adequately as a basis for skin assessment. Spectral measurements on the one hand, which require bulky, expensive and complex devices and direct channel approaches on the other hand, which operate with simple optical devices have been considered and applied for skin assessment. In this study, we analyse the capabilities of spectral estimation for skin assessment in form of chromophore concentration estimation using a prototypical low cost optical non-contact device. A spectral estimation work flow is implemented and combined with pre-simulated Monte Carlo spectra to use estimated spectra based on conventional image sensors for chromophore concentrations estimation and obtain health metrics. To evaluate the proposed approach, we performed a series of occlusion experiments and examined the capabilities of the proposed process. Additionally, the method has been applied to more general skin assessment tasks. The proposed process provides a more general representation in form of a spectral image cube which can be used for more advanced analysis and the comparisons show good agreement with expectations and conventional skin assessment methods. Utilising spectral estimation in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation could lead to low cost, easy to use, hand held and multifunctional optical skin assessment with the possibility to improve skin assessment and the diagnosis of diseases.