We have investigated the mechanism of photodecomposition of antimony carboxylate complexes of the type Ph3Sb(O2CR′)2 by means of EUV outgassing in combination with isotopic labelling. A series of photoresists were examined to determine the mechanistic pathways by which volatile photoproducts are generated during EUV exposure. A primary volatile photoproduct from triphenylantimony complexes is benzene. However, the source of hydrogen needed to convert the phenyl groups to benzene (Ph-H) is not obvious. We concluded that the primary source of hydrogen to create benzene is external to the film. Additionally, we have prepared isotopically-labelled versions of Ph<sub>3</sub>Sb(O<sub>2</sub>CCH(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub> in which the hydrogens in the isobutyrate ligand were replaced with 0, 1, 6 and 7 deuteriums, to provide information about the relative reactivity of these protons during EUV exposure as analyzed by mass spectrometry. High reaction selectivity was identified within the carboxylate dictated by hydrogen location relative to the carbonyl for both benzene and phenol generation. Lastly, the results of these studies were used to propose a series of reaction pathways to generate the aforementioned reaction byproducts.
This paper describes the photoreactivity of six organometallic complexes of the type Ph<sub>n</sub>MX<sub>2</sub> containing bismuth, antimony and tellurium, where n = 3 for bismuth and antimony and n = 2 for tellurium, and where X = acetate (O<sub>2</sub>CCH<sub>3</sub>) or pivalate (O<sub>2</sub>CC(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>). These compounds were exposed to EUV light to monitor photodecomposition via in situ mass spectral analysis of the primary outgassing products of CO<sub>2</sub>, benzene and phenol. This paper explores the effect of metal center and carboxylate ligand on the EUV reactivity of these EUV photoresists.
We have developed a method to study the photomechanism of our antimony carboxylate platform R3Sb(COOR')2. A series of mechanistic studies followed the production of reaction byproducts by mass spectrometer, as they left the film during exposure to EUV photons and 80 eV electrons. We identified several prominent outgassing fragments and their rates of production as a function of ligand structure. The degree of outgassing appears to be well-correlated with the bond dissociation energy of the carboxylate ligand R’ group. Furthermore, a deuterium labeling study was conducted to determine from which ligand hydrogen is abstracted to form benzene and phenol during exposure. Benzene and phenol were found to abstract hydrogen from opposing sites within the film, and with greater than 95% isotopic purity. Using the results of the outgassing studies alongside established mechanisms for electron-induced reactions; a series of reaction pathways were proposed to generate the aforementioned outgassing species and a possible nonvolatile negative-tone photoproduct.