The next-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), designated the GOES-R Series, will
provide continuity and improvement of remotely-sensed environmental data from a geosynchronous orbit in the 2015-
2028 era. The GOES-R Ground Segment (GS) Project will acquire the integrated, distributed GS that will conduct
satellite operations and product generation and distribution. This paper describes improvements in GOES-R sensors and
measurements over previous GOES satellites and facets of the product generation subsystem capabilities. The GS will
be capable of producing several key environmental products at low latency on a continuous basis.
In order to meet the requirements, documented by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)
user communities, the instruments designated for the GOES-R notional baseline include an Advanced Baseline
Imager (ABI), a Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), a Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and
advanced space and solar observing instruments including the Solar Imaging Suite (SIS) and the Space Environment
In-Situ Suite (SEISS). These instruments will monitor a wide range of phenomena, including applications relating
to: weather, climate, ocean, coastal zones, land, hazards, solar and space.
The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on GOES-R and beyond will enable improved monitoring of the distribution and evolution of atmospheric thermodynamics and clouds. The HES will be able to provide hourly atmospheric soundings with spatial resolution of 4 ~ 10 km with high accuracy using its high spectral resolution measurements. However, presence of clouds affects the sounding retrieval and needs to be dealt with properly. The ABI is able to provide at high spatial resolution (0.5 ~ 2km) a cloud mask, surface and cloud types, cloud phase mask, cloud top pressure (CTP), cloud particle size (CPS), and cloud optical thickness (COT), etc. The combined ABI/HES system offers the opportunity for atmospheric and cloud products improved over those possible from either system alone. The key step for synergistic use of ABI/HES radiance measurements is the collocation in space and time. Collocated ABI can (1) provide HES sub-pixel cloud characterization (mask, amount, phase, layer information, etc.) within the HES footprint; (2) be used for HES cloudclearing for partly cloudy HES footprints; (3) provide background information in variational retrieval of cloud properties with HES cloudy radiances. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the Earth Observing System's (EOS) Aqua satellite provide the opportunity to study the synergistic use of advanced imager and sounder measurements. The combined MODIS and AIRS data for various scenes are analyzed to study the utility of synergistic use of ABI products and HES radiances for better retrieving atmospheric soundings and cloud properties. In order to derive sounding from combined ABI and HES radiances under HES partly cloudy footprint where no microwave sounding unit is available, an optimal cloud-removal or cloud-clearing algorithm is developed. MODIS and AIRS are used to verify the algorithm. AIRS clear column radiances are retrieved from the combined MODIS IR clear radiances and the AIRS cloudy radiances on a single footprint basis. The AIRS cloud-removed or cloudcleared radiance spectrum is convoluted to all the MODIS IR spectral bands with spectral response functions (SRFs), and the convoluted brightness temperatures (BTs) are compared with MODIS clear BT observations within all successful cloud-cleared footprints. The bias and the standard deviation between the convoluted BTs and MODIS clear BT observations is less than 0.25 K and 0.5 K, respectively, over both water and land for most MODIS IR spectral bands. The AIRS cloud-cleared BT spectrum is also compared with its nearby clear BT spectrum, the difference, accounting the effects due to scene non- uniformity, is reasonable according the analysis. It is found that more than 30% of the AIRS cloudy (partly and overcast) footprints in this study have been successfully cloud-cleared using the optimal cloud-clearing method, revealing the potential application of this method on the operational processing of hyperspectral IR sounder cloudy radiance measurements when the collocated imager IR data is available.
With increased spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R Series will contribute to a significant improvement in the GOES products, including an increase in the number of products over the current GOES Imager and Sounder, especially when combined with the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The planned capabilities of the HES are encompassed by tasks, which describe required performance for operating at required scan rates. The scheduling of the HES will be determined by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). A range of possible scan scenarios for optimizing the collection of data for users with a variety of geographic or phenomenological concerns will be discussed here. One such schedule from the sounding capability of the HES would be a full "sounding disk" at 10 km (sub-satellite point resolution) covered every three hours, as well as the contiguous U.S. every hour at 4 km resolution, plus selected other regions of interest. The HES Coastal Waters (CW) will provide coverage of the coastal areas every three hours, in addition to other regions such as the Great Lakes, or other features of interest.
High spectral resolution infrared radiances from the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) on Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R and beyond) will allow for monitoring the evolution of atmospheric temperature and moisture vertical distributions. HES, together with the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will operationally provide enhanced spatial, temporal and vertical information for radiances and atmospheric soundings that are desired by numerical weather forecast models. An algorithm has been developed to analyze the retrieval error and the vertical resolution of soundings from HES radiances. Trade-off studies have been done to balance the spectral coverage, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio in order to achieve the GOES users' requirement of 1 K accuracy with 1km vertical resolution for temperature and 10% accuracy with 2km vertical resolution for relative humidity. The vertical resolution capability of HES is also compared with that of the current GOES Sounder which has 18 infrared spectral channels and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the NOAA polar orbiting satellites that has good temperature sensitivity in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. The advantage of combination of GOES sounder and AMSU is also investigated.
In order to meet the requirements, documented by the GOES user communities, the instruments designated for the GOES-R notional baseline include an Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), a Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), a Lightning Mapper, and advanced space and solar observing instruments. These instruments will first be launched in 2012.
The Advanced Baseline Imager is a state of the art, 16-channel imager covering 6 visible to near-IR bands (0.47, 0.64, 0.86, 1.38, 1.61, and 2.26 mm), and 10 infrared (IR) bands (3.90 mm to 13.3 mm). Spatial resolutions are band dependent, 0.5 km at nadir for broadband visible, 1.0 km for near IR and 2.0 km for IR. The ABI will scan the Full Disk (FD) in approximately 5 minutes.
The HES is a multi channel imager and sounder instrument suite with three threshold tasks. HES will provide high-spectral resolution Hemispheric Disk Soundings (DS) and Severe Weather Mesoscale (SW/M) soundings and Coastal Waters (CW) imaging.
HES DS provides 10 km IR resolution from 3.7 mm to 15.4 mm with a one-hour refresh rate of the full disk, 62° local zenith angle. SW/M will cover a 1000 x 1000 km square in 4 minutes, at 4 km resolution for IR. HES CW task will provide at least 14 channels covering 0.4 mm to 1.0 mm, with a 300 m resolution and a 3-hour refresh rate. Coastal Waters are defined as the 400 km zone adjacent to CONUS.
Additional capabilities include an improved Space Environment Monitor, a Solar X-Ray Imager, and direct user services, such as Search and Rescue (SAR), and a Data Collection System (DCS). This paper will focus on the planned instrument capabilities of the GOES-R Series, the space system architecture, and how the new capabilities will complement the future Global Observing System to meet the documented user needs.
The first GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) Users' Conference, focusing on the GOES-R Series was held from May 22 through 24, 2001 in Boulder Colorado, with approximately 200 participants from government, the private sector, academia and the international community. GOES-R is planned to be launched in 2012. The conference was organized by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with cooperation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the National Weather Association, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The goals of the conference were: (1) to inform GOES users of plans for the next generation capabilities; (2) to provide information on the potential applications; (3) to determine user needs for new products, data distribution, and data archiving; (4) to assess potential user and societal benefits of GOES capabilities; and (5) to develop methods to improve communication between the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) and the GOES user community. Sessions included: (1) planned and potential sensors for U.S. geostationary satellites; (2) user requirements, applications, and potential benefits from future GOES; (3) future international geostationary satellites; and (4) communications, ancillary services and training issues. The third day of the conference consisted of facilitated breakout sessions in which the user community provided input to ten questions on their future needs for products, services, data distribution, archiving, training and potential benefits of the next generation GOES to their operations and to society. A second GOES Users' Conference will be held in Boulder, Colorado from October 1 to 3, 2002. This paper will provide a summary of the recommendations provided by the first GOES Users' Conference and some expectations of topics to be covered at the second conference. A brief summary of a new requirements generation process that incorporates input from both conferences will also be provided.