This paper reports on robotic and haptic technologies and capabilities developed for the law
enforcement and defence community within Australia by the Centre for Intelligent Systems
Research (CISR). The OzBot series of small and medium surveillance robots have been
designed in Australia and evaluated by law enforcement and defence personnel to determine
suitability and ruggedness in a variety of environments. Using custom developed digital
electronics and featuring expandable data busses including RS485, I<sup>2</sup>C, RS232, video and
Ethernet, the robots can be directly connected to many off the shelf payloads such as gas
sensors, x-ray sources and camera systems including thermal and night vision.
Differentiating the OzBot platform from its peers is its ability to be integrated directly with haptic
technology or the 'haptic bubble' developed by CISR. Haptic interfaces allow an operator to
physically 'feel' remote environments through position-force control and experience realistic
force feedback. By adding the capability to remotely grasp an object, feel its weight, texture and
other physical properties in real-time from the remote ground control unit, an operator's
situational awareness is greatly improved through Haptic augmentation in an environment
where remote-system feedback is often limited.