Particle removal without damage has been demonstrated for <60nm photomask sub-resolution assist features with
droplet momentum cleaning technology that employs NanoDroplet<sup>TM</sup> mixed-fluid jet nozzle. Although 99%+ particle
removal efficiency can be achieved for standard Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> particles with broad size distribution, there are some cleaning
challenges with small (<100nm) and large contact area (>500nm) particles. It was found that tunable uniform cavitation
can provide the additional physical assist force needed to improve cleaning efficiency of these challenging particles
while meeting the damage-fee cleaning requirement. An integrated cleaning process was developed that combines both
droplet momentum and damage-free cavitation technology. Cleaning tests were performed with different types of
challenging particles. The results showed 5-8% particle removal efficiency improvement as compared to momentum
based only cleaning. All masks were processed using the Tetra<sup>TM</sup> mask cleaning tool configured with NanoDroplet<sup>TM</sup>
mixed fluid jet technology and full face megasonics.
High particle removal efficiency (PRE) up to 99%+ without damage to sub-50 nm linewidth features has been
demonstrated using a mixed fluid jet technology and sulfur-free chemistry. This high PRE was achieved with several
types of deposited particles, including polystyrene latex spheres. Damage-free cleaning was demonstrated on binary and
phase shift masks with Cr and MoSi structures. All masks were processed using the Tetra<sup>TM</sup> mask cleaning tool
configured with the NanoDroplet<sup>TM</sup> mixed fluid jet technology.
Photon induced haze resulting from sulfur residues that remain after cleaning and photoresist stripping is a key challenge
for 193 nm photomasks. In previously reported work, sulfur-free processes for cleaning and photoresist removal on mask
blanks were shown. Additional characterization and development of the cleaning and strip/clean processes are presented
here. For cleaning the particle adder stability, ammonia chemistry residue levels, and chrome oxide anti-reflection
coating (ARC) layer integrity were characterized. It was found that process modification was needed to provide
acceptable post-clean ammonia levels and reflectivity change per clean. A strip/clean process with acceptable window
for complete resist removal without ARC layer damage was found to be challenging and dependent on the mask
photoresist/ARC stack. Dry strip, wet strip, and combined dry/wet stripping approaches (all followed by wet clean) were
investigated. Oxidizing dry strip chemistry, while easily removing the bulk photoresist layer, gave unacceptable ARC
attack. For FEP photoresist an all-wet process was demonstrated, and for iP and NEB resists, promising results were
achieved with less oxidizing dry strip chemistry.
Sub-pellicle defects and haze increase due to photon reaction with cleaning chemistry residues are especially problematic on photomasks for 193 nm and shorter exposure wavelengths. In addition to mask cleaning, these chemistries are also used for photoresist stripping from photomasks. In this paper sulfuric acid free processes are shown to be effective for mask cleaning and photoresist removal. Bulk removal of photoresist was accomplished with both oxygen based dry plasma stripping and with wet oxidizing chemistry. Surface preparation prior to the main cleaning step was necessary to render Cr surface hydrophilic and enable targeted cleaning performance. This was accomplished with an O<sub>3</sub>/DI pre-treatment step. Full mask megasonics improved particle removal efficiency of moderately to heavily contaminated masks.