Image-to-physical registration based on volumetric data like computed tomography on the one side and intraoperative endoscopic images on the other side is an important method for various surgical applications. In this contribution, we present methods to generate panoramic views from endoscopic recordings for image-to-physical registration of narrow drill holes inside spongy bone. One core application is the registration of drill poses inside the mastoid during minimally invasive cochlear implantations. Besides the development of image processing software for registration, investigations are performed on a miniaturized optical system, achieving 360° radial imaging with one shot by extending a conventional, small, rigid, rod lens endoscope. A reflective cone geometry is used to deflect radially incoming light rays into the endoscope optics. Therefore, a cone mirror is mounted in front of a conventional 0° endoscope. Furthermore, panoramic images of inner drill hole surfaces in artificial bone material are created. Prior to drilling, cone beam computed tomography data is acquired from this artificial bone and simulated endoscopic views are generated from this data. A qualitative and quantitative image comparison of resulting views in terms of image-to-image registration is performed. First results show that downsizing of panoramic optics to a diameter of 3mm is possible. Conventional rigid rod lens endoscopes can be extended to produce suitable panoramic one-shot image data. Using unrolling and stitching methods, images of the inner drill hole surface similar to computed tomography image data of the same surface were created. Registration is performed on ten perturbations of the search space and results in target registration errors of (0:487 ± 0:438)mm at the entry point and (0:957 ± 0:948)mm at the exit as well as an angular error of (1:763 ± 1:536)°. The results show suitability of this image data for image-to-image registration. Analysis of the error components in different directions reveals a strong influence of the pattern structure, meaning higher diversity results into smaller errors.
Laser surgery is an established clinical procedure in dental applications, soft tissue ablation, and ophthalmology. The presented experimental set-up for closed-loop control of laser bone ablation addresses a feedback system and enables safe ablation towards anatomical structures that usually would have high risk of damage. This study is based on combined working volumes of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Er:YAG cutting laser. High level of automation in fast image data processing and tissue treatment enables reproducible results and shortens the time in the operating room. For registration of the two coordinate systems a cross-like incision is ablated with the Er:YAG laser and segmented with OCT in three distances. The resulting Er:YAG coordinate system is reconstructed. A parameter list defines multiple sets of laser parameters including discrete and specific ablation rates as ablation model. The control algorithm uses this model to plan corrective laser paths for each set of laser parameters and dynamically adapts the distance of the laser focus. With this iterative control cycle consisting of image processing, path planning, ablation, and moistening of tissue the target geometry and desired depth are approximated until no further corrective laser paths can be set. The achieved depth stays within the tolerances of the parameter set with the smallest ablation rate. Specimen trials with fresh porcine bone have been conducted to prove the functionality of the developed concept. Flat bottom surfaces and sharp edges of the outline without visual signs of thermal damage verify the feasibility of automated, OCT controlled laser bone ablation with minimal process time.
This work investigates combination of Optical Coherence Tomography and two cameras, observing a microscopic scene. Stereo vision provides realistic images, but is limited in terms of penetration depth. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables access to subcutaneous structures, but 3D-OCT volume data do not give the surgeon a familiar view. The extension of the stereo camera setup with OCT imaging combines the benefits of both modalities. In order to provide the surgeon with a convenient integration of OCT into the vision interface, we present an automated image processing analysis of OCT and stereo camera data as well as combined imaging as augmented reality visualization. Therefore, we care about OCT image noise, perform segmentation as well as develop proper registration objects and methods. The registration between stereo camera and OCT results in a Root Mean Square error of 284 μm as average of five measurements. The presented methods are fundamental for fusion of both imaging modalities. Augmented reality is shown as application of the results. Further developments lead to fused visualization of subcutaneous structures, as information of OCT images, into stereo vision.