The electronic countermeasures (ECM) include methods to completely prevent or restrict the effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum by the opponent. The most widespread means of disorganizing the operation of electronic devices is to create active and passive radio-electronic jamming. The paper presents the way of jamming efficiency calculations for protecting ground objects against the radars mounted on the airborne platforms. The basic mathematical formulas for calculating the efficiency of active radar jamming are presented. The numerical calculations for ground object protection are made for two different electronic warfare scenarios: the jammer is placed very closely and in a determined distance from the protecting object. The results of these calculations are presented in the appropriate figures showing the minimal distance of effective jamming. The realization of effective radar jamming in electronic warfare systems depends mainly on the precise knowledge of radar and the jammer’s technical parameters, the distance between them, the assumed value of the degradation coefficient, the conditions of electromagnetic energy propagation and the applied jamming method. The conclusions from these calculations facilitate making a decision regarding how jamming should be conducted to achieve high efficiency during the electronic warfare training.
The paper describes some of the problems associated with emitter location calculations. This aspect is the most important part of the series of tasks in the electronic recognition systems. The basic tasks include: detection of emission of electromagnetic signals, tracking (determining the direction of emitter sources), signal analysis in order to classify different emitter types and the identification of the sources of emission of the same type. The paper presents a brief description of the main methods of emitter localization and the basic mathematical formulae for calculating their location. The errors’ estimation has been made to determine the emitter location for three different methods and different scenarios of emitters and direction finding (DF) sensors deployment in the electromagnetic environment. The emitter has been established using a special computer program. On the basis of extensive numerical calculations, the evaluation of precise emitter location in the recognition systems for different configuration alignment of bearing devices and emitter was conducted. The calculations which have been made based on the simulated data for different methods of location are presented in the figures and respective tables. The obtained results demonstrate that calculation of the precise emitter location depends on: the number of DF sensors, the distances between emitter and DF sensors, their mutual location in the reconnaissance area and bearing errors. The precise emitter location varies depending on the number of obtained bearings. The higher the number of bearings, the better the accuracy of calculated emitter location in spite of relatively high bearing errors for each DF sensor.