Exploratory prototype DfM tools, methodologies and emerging physical process models are described. The examples
include new platforms for collaboration on process/device/circuits, visualization and quantification of manufacturing
effects at the mask layout level, and advances toward fast-CAD models for lithography, CMP, etch and photomasks. The
examples have evolved from research supported over the last several years by DARPA, SRC, Industry and the Sate of
California U.C. Discovery Program. DfM tools must enable complexity management with very fast first-cut accurate
models across process, device and circuit performance with new modes of collaboration. Collaborations can be promoted
by supporting simultaneous views in naturally intuitive parameters for each contributor. An important theme is to shift
the view point of the statistical variation in timing and power upstream from gate level CD distributions to a more
deterministic set of sources of variations in characterized processes. Many of these nonidealities of manufacturing can be
expressed at the mask plane in terms of lateral impact functions to capture effects not included in design rules. Pattern
Matching and Perturbation Formulations are shown to be well suited for quantifying these sources of variation.
Erbium-doped Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> thin films were synthesized by combining radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition (RE-ALD) of Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and Er<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> in an alternating fashion at 350°C. The Er doping level was precisely controlled to range from 6 to 14 at.% by varying the ratio of Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>:Er<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> cycles during deposition. At 350°C, the films were found to be polycrystalline, showing a preferential growth direction in the  direction. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) at 1.54 μm, characteristic of the Er<sup>3+</sup> intra 4<i>f</i> transition, was observed in a 500-Å Er-doped (6 at.%) Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> film, showing well resolved Stark features indicating the proper incorporation of Er in the Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> host. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis revealed a six-fold coordination of Er by O in all samples, suggesting that the PL quenching observed at high Er concentration (>8 at.%) is likely dominated by Er ion-ion interaction and not by Er immiscibility in the Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> host. The effective absorption cross section for Er<sup>3+</sup> ions incorporated in Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> was determined to be ~10<sup>-18</sup> cm<sup>2</sup>, about three orders of magnitude larger than the direct optical absorption cross section reported for Er<sup>3+</sup> ions in a stoichiometric SiO<sub>2</sub> host.
Plasma etching is an enabling technology to pattern novel materials and to generate small structures. This paper provides a plasma etching perspective in the era of nanofabrication, using the definition of the gate structure of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) as an example, followed by the importance of predictive modeling, and finally the application challenges of plasma etching in fabricating micro-chemical and biological sensors.