We introduce a method for using Fizeau interferometry to measure the intrinsic resolving power of a diffraction grating. This method is more accurate than traditional techniques based on a long-trace profiler (LTP), since it is sensitive to long-distance phase errors not revealed by a d-spacing map. We demonstrate 50,400 resolving power for a mechanically ruled XUV grating from Inprentus, Inc.
As resolving power targets have increased with each generation of beamlines commissioned in synchrotron radiation facilities worldwide, diffraction gratings are quickly becoming crucial optical components for meeting performance targets. However, the metrology of variable-line-spacing (VLS) gratings for high resolution beamlines is not widespread; in particular, no metrology facility at any US DOE facility is currently equipped to fully characterize such gratings. To begin to address this issue, the Optics Group at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, in collaboration with SOLEIL and with support from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), has developed an alternative beam path addition to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) at Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source. This significantly expands the functionality of the LTP not only to measure mirrors surface slope profile at normal incidence, but also to characterize the groove density of VLS diffraction gratings in the Littrow incidence up to 79°, which covers virtually all diffraction gratings used at synchrotrons in the first order. The LTP light source is a 20mW HeNe laser, which yields enough signal for diffraction measurements to be performed on low angle blazed gratings optimized for soft X-ray wavelengths. We will present the design of the beam path, technical requirements for the optomechanics, and our data analysis procedure. Finally, we discuss challenges still to be overcome and potential limitations with use of the LTP to perform metrology on diffraction gratings.
We present proof-of-concept results for a novel ultraviolet-sensitive, photon counting, solar blind detector that
has the potential for high QE in a compact low voltage, low power, unsealed design. We utilize a delta-doped
back-illuminated CCD to read out low energy electrons from a photocathode. In parallel, a new generation
of high-QE ultraviolet-sensitive GaN photocathodes is being developed with initial success using delta-doping
technology rather than cesiation. In this paper we present results with the new readout using a CsI test cathode,
which produces events at under 1000 V accelerating potential.