We present a simple and efficient method for controlled linear induction of DNA damage in live cells. By passing a pulsed laser beam through a cylindrical lens prior to expansion, an elongated elliptical beam profile is created with the ability to expose controlled linear patterns while keeping the beam and the sample stationary. The length and orientation of the beam at the sample plane were reliably controlled by an adjustable aperture and rotation of the cylindrical lens, respectively. Localized immunostaining by the DNA double strand break (DSB) markers phosphorylated H2AX (H2AX) and Nbs1 in the nuclei of HeLa cells exposed to the "line scissors" was shown via confocal imaging. The line scissors method proved more efficient than the scanning mirror and scanning stage methods at induction of DNA DSB damage with the added benefit of having a greater potential for high throughput applications.
We have developed conjugates with quantum-dots (QDs) for the purpose of analysis of nanosystems that are organic or inorganic in nature such as DNA and carbon nanotubes. First, by employing Florescence Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) principles, a hybrid molecular beacon conjugates are synthesized. For water- solubilization of QDs, we modified the surface of CdSe-ZnS core-shell QD by using mercaptoacetic acid ligand. This modification does not affect the size of QDs from that of unmodified QDs. After linking molecular beacons to the carboxyl groups of the modified QDs using 1-Ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, hybrid molecular beacons are prepared as a DNA probe. After hybridization with specific target DNA and non-specific target DNA, the hybrid conjugates show high specificity to the target DNA with 5-fold increase in the intensity of fluorescence. By developing atomic model of the conjugates, we calculated with 8 numbers of molecular beacons on a single quantum dots, we could increase the efficiency of FRET up to 90%. In other hands, for application of quantum dots to the carbon nanotubes, FRET is a barrier. Thus, after employing 1 % sodium-dodecyl-sulfonate (SDS), single-walled carbon nanotubes are decorated with QDs at their outer surface. This enables fluorescent microscopy imaging of single-walled carbon nanotubes which is a more common technique than electron microscopy. In summary, QDs can be used for analysis or detection of both organic and inorganic based nanosystems.