An ROV constructed for the inspection of objects lying on the coastal sea floor has been described. In order to establish
if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical agent), a system using a neutron
sensor installed within ROV has been developed. We describe the maritime properties of ROV and show that the
measured gamma spectra for commonly found ammunition charged with TNT explosives are dominated by C, O and Fe
peaks enabling the determination of the presence of explosives inside an ammunition shell.
The maintenance and repair of reinforced concrete structures, especially those submerged in the sea-water, require
effective inspection and monitoring techniques for assessing the state of corrosion in reinforcement material. An
underwater inspection system was developed which is able to monitor the reinforcement corrosion. The system is ROV
equipped with the sealed tube neutron generator (NG). By rotating the NG and by using the associated alpha particle
technique it is possible to measure the concrete cover depth together with the reinforcing bar diameter. The possibility to
estimate the carbon and chloride content in the concrete was investigated. Iron plates of different thickness, covered by 6
cm thick concrete block, were successfully detected and the thickness of the concrete cover was estimated. In addition,
reinforced bar of one and three centimeters in diameter was identified and measured.
Here we describe a prototype for non-destructive, in-situ, accurate and cost-effectively measurement
procedure of carbon in soil based on neutron activation analysis using 14 MeV tagged neutron beam.
This technology can be used for carbon baseline assessment on regional scale and for monitoring of
its surface and depth storage due to the changes in agricultural practices undertaken in order to
mitigate global climate change.
A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX
explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray
spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the
nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density.
Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant
can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs
like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.
In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within the objects on the sea floor we have performed
tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine, SURVEYOR, submerged in
the test basin filled with sea water. The materials inside the investigated objects were identified by measuring the gamma
ray spectra and by using the window on the measured alpha- gamma time spectrum. In addition, we describe our field
test facility and measurements done at this location in the framework of the EU FP7 project UNCOSS.
The existence of a data base of potentially explosive devices on the floor of coastal sea, especially ports and waterways,
is of paramount importance. However, the sea floor is littered by number of different objects and the water is not very
transparent on such locations. This makes the identification of objects extremely difficult even on known locations. We
discuss how to position the SURVEYOR when the object investigated for the presence of explosive has been identified
by other sensors (camera, sonar, magnetometer, etc.).
While polluted sediments present a threat to the health of the marine ecosystem and indirectly to the public health,
ammunition dump sites being mostly unprotected and neglected, present a serious threat to human security,
environmental security and could be possible objects of misuse. Of special interest are sediments in ports and marinas.
Those are the places where any suspicious object needs to be analyzed for the presence of explosives and CW.
After analyzing several hundreds of sediment samples collected along the Adriatic coast, it has been found that they
could be grouped in 7 categories: bays, beaches, villages, ports, marinas - pier area, marina - service areas and others.
We have shown that the sediments in ports and harbors contain increased values of elements present in antifouling paints
(Cu, As, Zn and Pb). Their presence modifies the response of survey probes while screening the sea floor for the
presence of explosives and CW.