Non-invasive retinal imaging has greatly facilitated the research of eye disease and neurodegenerative disorders in the central nervous system (CNS). Two-photon microscopy is a powerful tool for in vivo imaging of mouse retina because it provides intrinsic optical sectioning capability and the infrared laser is less likely to excite the photoreceptors. However, the dilated mouse eye has large optical aberrations, which must be corrected to achieve high-resolution or even diffraction-limited imaging. Here, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) two-photon microscope for in vivo imaging of retinal neurons through the eyeball of living mouse. We used the two-photon excited fluorescence signal of retina as the guide star to measure and correct the aberration of mouse eye. After AO correction, the fluorescence signal was increased by at least fivefold and the fine structures such as axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) were clearly resolved. To take advantage of the non-invasive high-resolution imaging, we demonstrated functional calcium imaging of RGC responding to the light stimulations.