Delivering coherently in phase high power laser beams by fiber optics to transmitter telescopes is desirable to Fourier
Telescopy (FT) Imaging technique. One of the requirements to such delivery fibers is to maintain its optical path length
while being bent over 150 degrees. We have designed an apparatus and assessed the piston phase error versus both the
radius of bending curvature and total bending angle of an optical fiber. The bending apparatus we built can evaluate
delivery fiber, and the result of bending a single-mode fiber indicates that bending induced piston phase error can be
neglected in the range of fiber optic diameter and radius of bending curvature that we are interested.
Fourier Telescopy Imaging technique requires coherent laser beams generate high contrast interference fringes at remote
object of interest. We have built a narrow spectral linewidth 100W CW fiber laser amplifier and measured its output
beam coherent phase with respect to seeding laser's phase. We have demonstrated that the fiber laser amplifier that we
built conserved the coherent phase of its seeding source. Clear interference fringes were obtained by an interferometer
between the 100W fiber laser amplifier output and its seeding laser, without any active phase control element. Our
assessment shows that fiber laser amplifiers meet Fourier Telescopy imaging requirements.
The next generation 193 nm (ArF) laser has been designed and developed for high-volume production lithography. The NanoLith<SUP>TM</SUP> 7000, offering 20 Watts average output power at 4 kHz repetition rates is designed to support the highest exposure tool scan speeds for maximum productivity and wafer throughput. Fundamental design changes made to the laser core technologies are described. These advancements in core technology support the delivery of highly line-narrowed light with <EQ 0.35 pm FWHM and <EQ 0.95 pm at 95% included energy integral, enabling high contrast imaging from exposure tools with lens NA exceeding 0.75. The system has been designed to support production lithography, meeting specifications for bandwidth, dose stability (+/- 0.3% in 20 ms window) and wavelength stability (+/- 0.05 pm average line center error in 20 ms window) across 2 - 4 kHz repetition rates. Improvements in optical materials and coatings have led to increased lifetime of optics modules. Optimization of the discharge electrode design has increased chamber lifetime. Early life-testing indicates that the NanoLith<SUP>TM</SUP> core technologies have the potential for 400% reduction of cost of consumables as compared to its predecessor, the ELX-5000A and has been discussed elsewhere.
Photon burst mass spectrometry has been used to measure <SUP>85</SUP>Kr in a sample with an abundance of 6 X 10<SUP>-9</SUP>. Improvements in detection efficiency by the use of avalanche photodiodes cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature are reported, which should make possible measurement of <SUP>85</SUP>Kr at the ambient atmospheric abundance of 10<SUP>-11</SUP>.
Progress is reported on the development of a new technique for measurement of trace levels of radioisotopes which is based on fluorescence detection of output from a mass spectrometer. Significant achievements include the observation of fluorescence and burst signals from Kr isotopes, including enriched samples of <SUP>85</SUP>Kr with a 4- collector system. An isotopic abundance sensitivity of about 10<SUP>-8</SUP> is demonstrates with <SUP>83</SUP>Kr and <SUP>85</SUP>Kr.
Progress is reported on the development of a new laser- and mass spectrometer- based technique for measurement of trace levels of radioisotopes. Significant results to date include the demonstration of high efficiency and throughput in a mass spectrometer, efficient production of metastable atoms from Ar+ and Kr+ beams, a demonstration of the photon burst detector principle with Mg+ ions, and the verification of zero background in a two- detector system.