For the validation of optical diagnostic technologies, experimental results need to be benchmarked against the gold standard. Currently, the gold standard for tissue characterization is assessment of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections by a pathologist. When processing tissue into H&E sections, the shape of the tissue deforms with respect to the initial shape when it was optically measured. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for these tissue deformations when correlating optical measurement with routinely acquired histopathology. We propose a method to register the tissue in the H&E sections to the optical measurements, which corrects for these tissue deformations. We compare the registered H&E sections to H&E sections that were registered with an algorithm that does not account for tissue deformations by evaluating both the shape and the composition of the tissue and using microcomputer tomography data as an independent measure. The proposed method, which did account for tissue deformations, was more accurate than the method that did not account for tissue deformations. These results emphasize the need for a registration method that accounts for tissue deformations, such as the method presented in this study, which can aid in validating optical techniques for clinical use.
The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a surgical navigation system for pelvic malignancies.
For tracking an NDI Aurora tabletop field generator and in-house developed navigation software were used. For patient tracking three EM-sensor stickers were used, one on the back and two on the superior iliac spines. During surgery a trackable pointer was used. One day before surgery a CT scan was acquired with the stickers in-place and marked. From the CT scan the EM-sensors, tumor and normal structures were segmented. During surgery, accuracy was independently checked by pointing at the aorta bifurcation and the common iliac artery bifurcations. Subsequently, the system was used to localize the ureters and the tumor.
Seven patients were included, three rectal tumors with lymph node-involvement, three lymph node recurrences, and one rectal recurrence. The average external marker registration accuracy was 0.75 cm RMSE (range 0.31-1.58 cm). The average distance between the pointer and the arterial bifurcations was 1.55 cm (1SD=0.63 cm). We were able to localize and confirm the location of all ureters. Twelve out of thirteen lymph nodes were localized and removed. All tumors were removed radically. In all cases the surgeons indicated that the system aided in better anatomical insight, and faster localization of malignant tissue and ureters. In 2/7 cases surgeons indicated that radical resection was only possible with navigation.
The navigation accuracy was limited due to the use of skin markers. Nevertheless, preliminary results indicated potential clinical benefit due to better utilization of pre-treatment 3D imaging information.