We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology: Silica-on-Silicon thermo-optic planar lightwave circuit integrated circuits (PLCs). This 2-D solid-state optical device is capable of non-blocking switching operations and several additional important built-in functionalities. Both enable single-to-single channel switching, and single-to-multiple channel multicasting/broadcasting. In addition, it has the capability of channel weighting and variable output attenuationlpower control, for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We mention the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by several application examples: (1) Core networks use cross-connect systems to establish connections among nodes as well as among network segments; (2) Switching to protect and restore network service.
We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology based on Silica on Silicon thermo-optic integrated circuits. This is basically a 2D solid-state optical device capable of non-blocking switching operation. Except of its excellent performance (insertion loss<5dB, switching time<2ms...), the switch enables additional important build-in functionalities. It enables single-to- single channel switching and single-to-multiple channel multicasting/broadcasting. In addition, it has the capability of channel weighting and variable output power control (attenuation), for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We examine the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by a discussion of the basic features of the technology. The discussion is focused on important requirements from the switch and the technology (e.g., insertion loss, power consumption, channel isolation, extinction ratio, switching time, and heat dissipation). The mechanical design is also considered. It must take into account integration of optical fiber, optical planar wafer, analog electronics and digital microprocessor controls, embedded software, and heating power dissipation. The Lynx Photon.8x8 switch is compared to competing technologies, in terms of typical market performance requirements.
An overview is presented of fiber optic smart structure research at Rockwell for Fly-by-Light technology. The methods emphasize the use of radio frequency (rf) amplitude modulation of the optical intensity and detection of phase and amplitude of the rf signal transmitted through various optical fiber systems. Strain is transferred from metallic or composite structures to the embedded optical fibers.
A new fiber optic sensor for use in flexible structures is reported. The sensor is based on an extension of Rogowski's design, in which the laser-driven optical beam in the fiber is modulated at radio frequency and strain is detected by a shift in the phase delay as the fiber dimension is strained with the structure. This sensor -- FORISS -- differs in that it consists of an embedded closed loop of fiber coupled to a laser/detector/fiber optic delay line circuit through a 2 X 2 coupler. The closed loop has the characteristics of a Fabry-Perot cavity operating at radio frequency wavelengths within the fiber. A parametric model of the sensor that enables both physical characterization of prototype sensors and insights which guide design optimization of the sensor is described. Experiments were performed on fiber- embedded composite specimens tension-stressed to failure at 26 kpsi and 7400 microstrains. The sensor survived to the point of coupon failure. The data indicates that the sensor possesses the properties predicted by the theory.