This paper deals with parameter optimization and online monitoring of laser spot welding (LSW). Using Nd:YAG laser, a wide range of experiments regarding the welding process have been carried out for both successful and failed welds. The typical failures appearing during packaging of surface mounted devices (SMDs) on flexible printed circuits (FPC) include gaps, a loss of connection between the welded components, and damage of the printed circuit boards. A flip-flop device called SO16 and lead frames as two components of widely used SMDs were packaged on FPCs in the experiments. The reproducibility of the weld quality for SO16 (FeNi) is greater than for lead frames (CuFe2P); this points out the difficulties appearing during copper or copper alloy welding. However, a correlation between the weld quality and the detected emission signals recorded during the weld process has been found for both components. The detected signals of the optical process emission for successful welds depict identical characterisics which are divided into three relevant signal phases. Changes in the signal characteristics, especially in these phases, imply information about the weld quality. While monitoring the welding processes for both components are possible, the detected signals for SO16 are less sensitive to process variations compared to those for lead frames. Based on spectral analysis, the intensity of the detected emission due to SO16 welding is slightly higher than the intensity due to lead frames welding.
This paper deals with basic investigations in order to control the laser spot micro welding process when packaging electronic components onto three dimensional molded interconnect devices (3-D MID) or flexible printed circuit boards. A wide range of experiments has been carried out for both successful and fail welds. Typical failures appearing during welding are either damage of the circuit board due to overpower or loss of connection between the welded components due to gap formation between the leads of the component and the circuit board. The optical radiation emitted from the process was firstly measured off-axially and co-axially with a spectrometer. To aid the spectrometric analysis, an optical sensor based on a silicon photo diode and an appropriate optical filter was applied for detecting the emitted radiation. The signal was acquired, analyzed, and saved using a dedicated software program. Changes in the detected radiation due to different weld conditions were evaluated. Moreover, the weld quality was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) measurements and cross-sectional analysis. A correlation has been found between the signal course and the weld quality. Primarily, there are three relevant signal phases (high peak, flat stage, and small peak) appearing during the weld. Any changes in the characteristic signal during these process phases can be used to predict the quality of the welds.
Nd:YAG solid-state lasers have been integrated in many seam welding applications. They provide a good ability of integration into existing manufacturing sequences and allow its easy automation. Appropriate process monitoring systems are needed to decrease necessary user intervention, to ensure a high machine availability and to realize a zero defect production. In the electronics industry, laser spot welding techniques using pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers have been established in mass production applications, for example in manufacturing of electron gun components for TV monitor tubes over the last 25 years. They require different strategies and methods for process monitoring systems. Apart from these integrated laser spot welding applications, there is a current demand for new technologies to join micro components onto 3-dimensional (3-D) circuit substrates and to connect electrical plugs. In recent years, laser spot joining techniques have emerged as a viable option for packaging electrical and mechanical microparts, such as surface mounted devices (SMDs) and casings. Under most conditions, laser spot welding provides more durability as well as thermal and mechanical stability compared to traditional packaging techniques, such as simultaneous soldering. Additionally, under less ideal conditions, the packaging quality can be inconsistent, resulting in the need for optimization and monitoring of the weld parameters under different conditions. In order to achieve a stable process during packaging of electrical components despite their weak absorption of laser radiation and different surface qualities, a process monitoring system should be needed.