Fiber-optic endomicroscopy is a minimally invasive method to image cellular morphology in vivo. Using a coherent fiber bundle as an image relay, it allows additional imaging optics to be placed at the distal end of the fiber outside the body. In this research, we use this approach to demonstrate a compact, low-cost line-scanning confocal fluorescence microendoscope that can be constructed for <$5000. Confocal imaging is enabled without the need for mechanical scanning by synchronizing a digital light projector with the rolling shutter of a CMOS camera. Its axial performance is characterized in comparison with a nonscanned high-resolution microendoscope. We validate the optical sectioning capability of the microendoscope by imaging a two-dimensional phantom and ex vivo mouse esophageal and colon tissues. Results show that optical sectioning using this approach improves visualization of nuclear morphometry and suggest that this low-cost line-scanning microendoscope can be used to evaluate various pathological conditions.
A modular video endoscope is developed to enable both white light imaging (WLI) and vital-dye fluorescence imaging (VFI) in a single-endoscopic insertion for the early detection of cancer in Barrett’s esophagus (BE). We demonstrate that VFI can be achieved in conjunction with white light endoscopy, where appropriate white balance is used to correct for the presence of the emission filter. In VFI mode, a contrast enhancement feature is implemented in real time to further highlight glandular patterns in BE and related malignancies without introducing artifacts. In a pilot study, we demonstrate accurate correlation of images in two widefield modalities, with representative images showing the disruption and effacement of glandular architecture associated with cancer development in BE. VFI images of these alterations exhibit enhanced contrast when compared to WLI. Results suggest that the usefulness of VFI in the detection of BE-related neoplasia should be further evaluated in future in vivo studies.