Biofilm formation has been demonstrated for many mucosal pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae. The presence of mucosal biofilms with chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) suggests that bacteria do not clear by antibiotics. Aim: To test the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on H. influenzae biofilm in vitro. Methods: Sixteen biofilms of H. influenzae were maintained on culture chamber with continuous flow cell system. The biofilms were divided into control, laser, photofrin, and PDT groups. For culture group, the biofilms were cultured. For laser group, 7.2 J/cm2 of 632 nm diode laser was irradiated to the biofilms. For photofrin group, photofrins 5 and 25ug/ml were added to the media. For PDT group, photofrins 5 and 25 ug/ml were added to the media following 632 nm diode laser was irradiated (7.2 J/cm2) to the biofilms. Live/Dead (DAPI/PI) stain was performed and biofilms were examined under confocal laser microscope for thickness and density of biofilms. Results: By DAPI/PI staining, significant reduction of biofilms thickness and complete killing of H. influenzae in PDT group with 25µg photofrin was noted while the biofilms were well maintained in the other groups. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that PDT appears to be effective to photoinactivate experimental H. influenzae biofilms in vitro. Clinical implication: PDT can be a possible alternative treatment to antiobiotic treatment on otitis media with biofilm formation.
The efficiency of a conventional light emitting diode (LED) is limited by coupling of light into guided modes in the structure. Several methods to increase the extraction efficiency of nitride based LEDs are studied from the perspective of the patterned structures in LEDs. The patterned structures are made in the interface between a semiconductor and a sapphire substrate and on the surface of a semiconductor or an indium tin oxide electrode. All of these approaches show an increased light output compared to that of reference samples, which means these kinds of scattering sources are inevitable to make a highly efficient light emitter in nitride-based semiconductor system.