Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) has the potential to cost-effectively manufacture optical materials such as metals and plastic types. However, SPDT generally leaves tool marks on the machined surfaces, which creates problems that can deteriorate the optical performance. Several processes have been studied to eliminate the tool marks caused by SPDT, but it was difficult to carry out without the additional defects like sub-surface damages and other tool marks. To overcome this weakness, we investigated the Magneto-Rheological Finishing (MRF) process to effectively remove the periodic micro structures without surface deterioration for optical performance. The workpiece used in the experiment is a mirror plated with electroless nickel-phosphorus. Through the processing of the SPDT, an initial surface gets periodic tool marks, which have a height of 1.1 μm and a pitch of 20 μm. We studied on the reduction rate of the turning marks by the MRF process with some different conditions of uniform removal. The quantitative analysis of the surface roughness and residual marks was performed using a scanning low-coherence interferometer and through the Power Spectral Density (PSD) respectively. The results showed that reduction rates of tool marks depend on the angles (0, 45, and 90 degs) between the turning direction of the tool marks and the rotation direction of MR wheel. In the case of 45 degs, it indicated the fastest reduction rate.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be featured with two Gregorian secondary mirrors, an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) and a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM). The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and built as seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fine co-alignment of the telescope sub-apertures and fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. This tip-tilt capability thus enhances performance of the telescope in the seeing limited observation mode. As the first stage of the FSM development, Phase 0 study was conducted to develop a program plan detailing the design and manufacturing process for the seven FSM segments. The FSM development plan has been matured through an internal review by the GMTO-KASI team in May 2016 and fully assessed by an external review in June 2016. In this paper, we present the technical aspects of the FSM development plan.
An off-axis optical system can effectively avoid some problems, such as aberrations, shielded area created by the secondary mirror and a narrow field of view (FOV), while an on-axis optical system has the problems. Inspired by the consideration, the off-axis optical system is generally used for hyperspectral sensors and telescopes. However, there are several obstacles limiting the productivity of the off-axis optics in fabrication and measurement processes. In this study, to overcome this weakness, we suggests a new fabrication technique using a customized jig, not separated from the work-piece. A convex aspheric mirror and the off-axis mirror are fabricated by Single Point Diamond Turning Machine (SPDTM) for comparison analysis of surface state. The mirrors are made from aluminum (Al6061-T6) and used for the reflectors of a coastal water remote sensing system. We show fast machining and simple measurement in comparison with traditional off-axis single machining and measurement, provide performance results, such as form accuracy and surface roughness measured by both contact 3D profilometer (UA3P) and non-contact 3D profiler (CCI-Optics). The customized ultra-precision machining process can be effectively used for complex off-axis mirror fabricating.
Today, CVD SiC mirrors are readily available in the market. However, it is well known to the community that the key surface fabrication processes and, in particular, the material removal characteristics of the CVD SiC mirror surface varies sensitively depending on the shop floor polishing and figuring variables. We investigated the material removal characteristics of CVD SiC mirror surfaces using a new and patented polishing tool called orthogonal velocity tool (OVT) that employs two orthogonal velocity fields generated simultaneously during polishing and figuring machine runs. We built an in-house OVT machine and its operating principle allows for generation of pseudo Gaussian shapes of material removal from the target surface. The shapes are very similar to the tool influence functions (TIFs) of other polishing machine such as IRP series polishing machines from Zeeko. Using two CVD SiC mirrors of 150 mm in diameter and flat surface, we ran trial material removal experiments over the machine run parameter ranges from 12.901 to 25.867 psi in pressure, 0.086 m/sec to 0.147 m/sec in tool linear velocity, and 5 to 15 sec in dwell time. An in-house developed data analysis program was used to obtain a number of Gaussian shaped TIFs and the resulting material removal coefficient varies from 3.35 to 9.46 um/psi hour m/sec with the mean value to 5.90 ± 1.26(standard deviation). We report the technical details of the new OVT machine, of the data analysis program, of the experiments and the results together with the implications to the future development of the OVT machine and process for large CVD SiC mirror surfaces.
The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a compact high-resolution near-infrared cross-dispersed
spectrograph whose primary disperser is a silicon immersion grating. IGRINS covers the entire portion of the
wavelength range between 1.45 and 2.45μm that is accessible from the ground and does so in a single exposure with a
resolving power of 40,000. Individual volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings serve as cross-dispersing elements for
separate spectrograph arms covering the H and K bands. On the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at the McDonald
Observatory, the slit size is 1ʺ x 15ʺ and the plate scale is 0.27ʺ pixel. The spectrograph employs two 2048 x 2048
pixel Teledyne Scientific and Imaging HAWAII-2RG detectors with SIDECAR ASIC cryogenic controllers. The
instrument includes four subsystems; a calibration unit, an input relay optics module, a slit-viewing camera, and nearly
identical H and K spectrograph modules. The use of a silicon immersion grating and a compact white pupil design allows
the spectrograph collimated beam size to be only 25mm, which permits a moderately sized (0.96m x 0.6m x 0.38m)
rectangular cryostat to contain the entire spectrograph. The fabrication and assembly of the optical and mechanical
components were completed in 2013. We describe the major design characteristics of the instrument including the
system requirements and the technical strategy to meet them. We also present early performance test results obtained
from the commissioning runs at the McDonald Observatory.
IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer includes an immersion grating made of silicon and observes
both H-band (1.49~1.80 μm) and K-band (1.96~2.46 μm), simultaneously. In order to align such an infrared optical
system, the compensator in its optical components has been adjusted within tolerances at room temperature without
vacuum environment. However, such a system will ultimately operate at low temperature and vacuum with no
adjustment mechanism. Therefore a reasonable relationship between different environmental variations such as room and
low temperature might provide useful knowledge to align the system properly. We are attempting to develop a new
process to predict the Wave Front Error (WFE), and to produce correct mechanical control values when the optical
system is perturbed by moving the lens at room temperature. The purpose is to provide adequate optical performance
without making changes at operating temperature. In other words, WFE was measured at operating temperature without
any modification but a compensator was altered correctly at room temperature to meet target performance. The ‘no
adjustment’ philosophy was achieved by deterministic mechanical adjustment at room temperature from a simulation
that we developed. In this study, an achromatic doublet lens was used to substitute for the H and K band camera of
IGRINS. This novel process exhibits accuracy predictability of about 0.002 λ rms WFE and can be applied to a cooled
infrared optical systems.
In order to meet volume requirement and provide high image quality for a Long Range Oblique Photography (LOROP)
system, we adopted Cassegrain-type telescope with lens compensators for the operation in both regions of 0.6 ~ 0.9 μm
(EO channel) and 3.7 ~ 4.8 μm (IR channel). To provide dual-band functionality, the tilted plane-parallel plate is applied
and acts as a beam splitter located in the space between primary and secondary mirrors. The system is near to telecentric
in detector space (EO) and telecentric in intermediate image space (IR). The telecentricity provides image height
constancy while adjusting the focus. The optical system includes Back Scan Mechanism (BSM) to compensate image
blurring for integration time.
The fabrication and optical performance of a Cassegrain type telescope that employs a field corrector depends on the
conic constant of the primary mirror. The design of the field corrector calls for different choices on mirror asphericity
which imply a departure from the nominal Cassegrain or Ritchey-Chrétien solutions. This departure may not be
acceptable given that the telescope would not operate properly without the field corrector. In this paper we present a
study of the variation of mirror conic constant and field corrector choice of some existing telescopes. We also discuss
some trade-offs in the design of a telescope with a field corrector.
The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is building the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) for the 61-cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. With KASINICS we will mostly do time monitoring observations, e.g., thermal variations of Jovian planet atmospheres, variable stars, and blazars. We use a 512 x 512 InSb array (Aladdin III Quadrant, Raytheon Co.) for L-band observations as well as J, H, and Ks-bands. The field-of-view of the array is 6 x 6 arcmin with 0.7 arcsec/pixel. Since the SOAO 61-cm telescope was originally designed for visible band observations, we adopt an Offner relay optical system with a Lyot stop to eliminate thermal background emission from the telescope structures. In order to minimize weight and volume, and to overcome thermal contraction problems, we optimize the mechanical design of the camera using the finite-element-method (FEM) analysis. Most of the camera parts including the mirrors are manufactured from the same melt of aluminum alloy to ensure homologous contraction from room temperature to 70 K. We also developed a new control electronics system for the InSb array (see the other paper by Cho et al. in this proceedings). KASINICS is now under the performance test and planned to be in operation at the end of 2006.