We investigated the definition for circular off-axis aspheric mirrors (COAMs). The clear opening of the COAM obtained by projecting a circular aperture on the aspheric surface does not form a plane but a curved surface. To avoid ambiguity due to the non-planar opening, we propose to use a plane to cut the aspheric surface to obtain a COAM. The COAM has three characteristics: 1) an elliptical opening; 2) the major axis of the opening lies on the meridional plane containing the original optical axis of the aspheric surface, and the minor axis lies on the sagittal plane perpendicular to the meridian plane; and 3) it is not deepest at the center of the ellipse. The third characteristic suggests two methods for defining the COAM using a plane: 1) with the center of the elliptical opening as a reference and 2) with the deepest point of the mirror as a reference. All the formulas required to obtain the desired COAM using the two methods are presented.
We investigated the geometrical characteristics of off-axis parabolic mirrors (OPMs). We found that the clear aperture of an OPM is an ellipse with a set of major/minor diameters, and the center of the elliptical aperture does not correspond to the deepest depth of the mirror. Despite this property, the distance from the reference optical axis (ROA) of the parent parabolic mirror to the deepest point of the OPM is equal to the distance from the ROA to the center of the elliptical aperture of the OPM. This enables one to define an OPM by projecting a aperture perpendicular to the ROA on a parabolic surface.
The Fast-Steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) of Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) consists of seven 1.1m diameter segments with effective diameter of 3.2m. Each segment is held by three axial supports and a central lateral support with a vacuum system for pressure compensation. Both on-axis and off-axis mirror segments are optimized under various design considerations. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. The design of the FSM mirror and support system configuration was optimized using finite element analyses and optical performance analyses. The design of the mirror cell assembly will be performed including sub-assembly parts consisting of axial supports, lateral support, breakaway mechanism, seismic restraints, and pressure seal. . In this paper, the mechanical results and optical performance results are addressed for the optimized FSM mirror and mirror cell assembly, the design considerations are addressed, and performance prediction results are discussed in detail with respect to the specifications
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will feature two Gregorian secondary mirrors, an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) and a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM). The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and consists of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. This tiptilt capability thus enhances performance of the telescope in the seeing limited observation mode. The tip-tilt motion of the mirror is produced by three piezo actuators. In this paper we present a simulation model of the tip-tilt system which focuses on the piezo-actuators. The model includes hysteresis effects in the piezo elements and the position feedback control loop.
The Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) of Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) consists of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments with an effective diameter of 3.2 m, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4 m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter by adapting axial support actuators. Breakaway System (BAS) is installed for protecting FSM from seismic overload or other unknown shocks in the axial support. When an earthquake or other unknown shocks come in, the springs in the BAS should limit the force along the axial support axis not to damage the mirror. We tested a single BAS in the lab by changing the input force to the BAS in a resolution of 10 N and measuring the displacement of the system. In this paper, we present experimental results from changing the input force gradually. We will discuss the detailed characteristics of the BAS in this report.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be equipped with two Gregorian secondary mirrors; a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM) for seeing-limited operations and an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) for adaptive optics observing modes. The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and is comprised of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary mirror. Each FSM segment has a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and jitter. The FSM is mounted on a two-stage positioning system; a macro-cell that positions the entire FSM segments as an assembly and seven hexapod actuators that position and drive the individual FSM segments. In this paper, we present a technical overview of the FSM development status. More details in each area of development will be presented in other papers by the FSM team.
The Fast Steering Secondary Mirror (FSM) for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will have seven 1.05 m diameter circular segments and rapid tip-tilt capability to stabilize images under wind loading. In this paper, we report on the assembly, integration, and test (AIT) plan for this complex opto-mechanical system. Each fast-steering mirror segment has optical, mechanical, and electrical components that support tip-tilt capability for fine coalignment and fast guiding to attenuate wind shake and jitter. The components include polished and lightweighted mirror, lateral support, axial support assembly, seismic restraints, and mirror cell. All components will be assembled, integrated and tested to the required mechanical and optical tolerances following a concrete plan. Prior to assembly, fiducial references on all components and subassemblies will be located by three-dimensional coordinate measurement machines to assist with assembly and initial alignment. All electronics components are also installed at designed locations. We will integrate subassemblies within the required tolerances using precision tooling and jigs. Performance tests of both static and dynamic properties will be conducted in different orientations, including facing down, horizontal pointing, and intermediate angles using custom tools. In addition, the FSM must be capable of being easily and safely removed from the top-end assemble and recoated during maintenance. In this paper, we describe preliminary AIT plan including our test approach, equipment list, and test configuration for the FSM segments.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be equipped with two Gregorian secondary mirrors: a fast-steering mirror (FSM) system for seeing-limited operations and an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) for adaptive optics observing modes. The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and is comprised of seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment has a tip-tilt capability for fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and jitter. To verify the tip-tilt performance at various orientations, we performed tiptilt tests using a conceptual prototype of the FSM (FSMP) which was developed at KASI for R&D of key technologies for FSM. In this paper, we present configuration, methodology, results, and lessons from the FSMP test which will be considered in the development of FSM.
Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) has the potential to cost-effectively manufacture optical materials such as metals and plastic types. However, SPDT generally leaves tool marks on the machined surfaces, which creates problems that can deteriorate the optical performance. Several processes have been studied to eliminate the tool marks caused by SPDT, but it was difficult to carry out without the additional defects like sub-surface damages and other tool marks. To overcome this weakness, we investigated the Magneto-Rheological Finishing (MRF) process to effectively remove the periodic micro structures without surface deterioration for optical performance. The workpiece used in the experiment is a mirror plated with electroless nickel-phosphorus. Through the processing of the SPDT, an initial surface gets periodic tool marks, which have a height of 1.1 μm and a pitch of 20 μm. We studied on the reduction rate of the turning marks by the MRF process with some different conditions of uniform removal. The quantitative analysis of the surface roughness and residual marks was performed using a scanning low-coherence interferometer and through the Power Spectral Density (PSD) respectively. The results showed that reduction rates of tool marks depend on the angles (0, 45, and 90 degs) between the turning direction of the tool marks and the rotation direction of MR wheel. In the case of 45 degs, it indicated the fastest reduction rate.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be featured with two Gregorian secondary mirrors, an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) and a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM). The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and built as seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fine co-alignment of the telescope sub-apertures and fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. This tip-tilt capability thus enhances performance of the telescope in the seeing limited observation mode. As the first stage of the FSM development, Phase 0 study was conducted to develop a program plan detailing the design and manufacturing process for the seven FSM segments. The FSM development plan has been matured through an internal review by the GMTO-KASI team in May 2016 and fully assessed by an external review in June 2016. In this paper, we present the technical aspects of the FSM development plan.
An off-axis optical system can effectively avoid some problems, such as aberrations, shielded area created by the secondary mirror and a narrow field of view (FOV), while an on-axis optical system has the problems. Inspired by the consideration, the off-axis optical system is generally used for hyperspectral sensors and telescopes. However, there are several obstacles limiting the productivity of the off-axis optics in fabrication and measurement processes. In this study, to overcome this weakness, we suggests a new fabrication technique using a customized jig, not separated from the work-piece. A convex aspheric mirror and the off-axis mirror are fabricated by Single Point Diamond Turning Machine (SPDTM) for comparison analysis of surface state. The mirrors are made from aluminum (Al6061-T6) and used for the reflectors of a coastal water remote sensing system. We show fast machining and simple measurement in comparison with traditional off-axis single machining and measurement, provide performance results, such as form accuracy and surface roughness measured by both contact 3D profilometer (UA3P) and non-contact 3D profiler (CCI-Optics). The customized ultra-precision machining process can be effectively used for complex off-axis mirror fabricating.
Today, CVD SiC mirrors are readily available in the market. However, it is well known to the community that the key surface fabrication processes and, in particular, the material removal characteristics of the CVD SiC mirror surface varies sensitively depending on the shop floor polishing and figuring variables. We investigated the material removal characteristics of CVD SiC mirror surfaces using a new and patented polishing tool called orthogonal velocity tool (OVT) that employs two orthogonal velocity fields generated simultaneously during polishing and figuring machine runs. We built an in-house OVT machine and its operating principle allows for generation of pseudo Gaussian shapes of material removal from the target surface. The shapes are very similar to the tool influence functions (TIFs) of other polishing machine such as IRP series polishing machines from Zeeko. Using two CVD SiC mirrors of 150 mm in diameter and flat surface, we ran trial material removal experiments over the machine run parameter ranges from 12.901 to 25.867 psi in pressure, 0.086 m/sec to 0.147 m/sec in tool linear velocity, and 5 to 15 sec in dwell time. An in-house developed data analysis program was used to obtain a number of Gaussian shaped TIFs and the resulting material removal coefficient varies from 3.35 to 9.46 um/psi hour m/sec with the mean value to 5.90 ± 1.26(standard deviation). We report the technical details of the new OVT machine, of the data analysis program, of the experiments and the results together with the implications to the future development of the OVT machine and process for large CVD SiC mirror surfaces.
The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a compact high-resolution near-infrared cross-dispersed
spectrograph whose primary disperser is a silicon immersion grating. IGRINS covers the entire portion of the
wavelength range between 1.45 and 2.45μm that is accessible from the ground and does so in a single exposure with a
resolving power of 40,000. Individual volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings serve as cross-dispersing elements for
separate spectrograph arms covering the H and K bands. On the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at the McDonald
Observatory, the slit size is 1ʺ x 15ʺ and the plate scale is 0.27ʺ pixel. The spectrograph employs two 2048 x 2048
pixel Teledyne Scientific and Imaging HAWAII-2RG detectors with SIDECAR ASIC cryogenic controllers. The
instrument includes four subsystems; a calibration unit, an input relay optics module, a slit-viewing camera, and nearly
identical H and K spectrograph modules. The use of a silicon immersion grating and a compact white pupil design allows
the spectrograph collimated beam size to be only 25mm, which permits a moderately sized (0.96m x 0.6m x 0.38m)
rectangular cryostat to contain the entire spectrograph. The fabrication and assembly of the optical and mechanical
components were completed in 2013. We describe the major design characteristics of the instrument including the
system requirements and the technical strategy to meet them. We also present early performance test results obtained
from the commissioning runs at the McDonald Observatory.
IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer includes an immersion grating made of silicon and observes
both H-band (1.49~1.80 μm) and K-band (1.96~2.46 μm), simultaneously. In order to align such an infrared optical
system, the compensator in its optical components has been adjusted within tolerances at room temperature without
vacuum environment. However, such a system will ultimately operate at low temperature and vacuum with no
adjustment mechanism. Therefore a reasonable relationship between different environmental variations such as room and
low temperature might provide useful knowledge to align the system properly. We are attempting to develop a new
process to predict the Wave Front Error (WFE), and to produce correct mechanical control values when the optical
system is perturbed by moving the lens at room temperature. The purpose is to provide adequate optical performance
without making changes at operating temperature. In other words, WFE was measured at operating temperature without
any modification but a compensator was altered correctly at room temperature to meet target performance. The ‘no
adjustment’ philosophy was achieved by deterministic mechanical adjustment at room temperature from a simulation
that we developed. In this study, an achromatic doublet lens was used to substitute for the H and K band camera of
IGRINS. This novel process exhibits accuracy predictability of about 0.002 λ rms WFE and can be applied to a cooled
infrared optical systems.
In order to meet volume requirement and provide high image quality for a Long Range Oblique Photography (LOROP)
system, we adopted Cassegrain-type telescope with lens compensators for the operation in both regions of 0.6 ~ 0.9 μm
(EO channel) and 3.7 ~ 4.8 μm (IR channel). To provide dual-band functionality, the tilted plane-parallel plate is applied
and acts as a beam splitter located in the space between primary and secondary mirrors. The system is near to telecentric
in detector space (EO) and telecentric in intermediate image space (IR). The telecentricity provides image height
constancy while adjusting the focus. The optical system includes Back Scan Mechanism (BSM) to compensate image
blurring for integration time.
The fabrication and optical performance of a Cassegrain type telescope that employs a field corrector depends on the
conic constant of the primary mirror. The design of the field corrector calls for different choices on mirror asphericity
which imply a departure from the nominal Cassegrain or Ritchey-Chrétien solutions. This departure may not be
acceptable given that the telescope would not operate properly without the field corrector. In this paper we present a
study of the variation of mirror conic constant and field corrector choice of some existing telescopes. We also discuss
some trade-offs in the design of a telescope with a field corrector.
The Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is building the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) for the 61-cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. With KASINICS we will mostly do time monitoring observations, e.g., thermal variations of Jovian planet atmospheres, variable stars, and blazars. We use a 512 x 512 InSb array (Aladdin III Quadrant, Raytheon Co.) for L-band observations as well as J, H, and Ks-bands. The field-of-view of the array is 6 x 6 arcmin with 0.7 arcsec/pixel. Since the SOAO 61-cm telescope was originally designed for visible band observations, we adopt an Offner relay optical system with a Lyot stop to eliminate thermal background emission from the telescope structures. In order to minimize weight and volume, and to overcome thermal contraction problems, we optimize the mechanical design of the camera using the finite-element-method (FEM) analysis. Most of the camera parts including the mirrors are manufactured from the same melt of aluminum alloy to ensure homologous contraction from room temperature to 70 K. We also developed a new control electronics system for the InSb array (see the other paper by Cho et al. in this proceedings). KASINICS is now under the performance test and planned to be in operation at the end of 2006.