The formation of half-light half-matter quasiparticle exciton polariton and its condensation in semiconductor microcavities are striking phenomena for the macroscopically quantum coherence at elevated temperature. The matter constituent of exciton polariton dictates the interacting behaviors of these bosonic particles primarily via exciton-exciton interactions. However, these interactions are all limited to the ground state exciton, although they are expected to be much stronger at Rydberg states with higher principal numbers. Here, for the first time, we observe the spontaneous formed Rydberg exciton polaritons (REPs) in a high quality Fabry-Perot cavity embedded with single crystal inorganic perovskite. Such REPs exhibit strong nonlinear behavior and anisotropic, enabling an anomalous dynamic process that leads to a coherent polariton condensate with prominent blue shift. This discovery presents a unique platform to study quantum coherent many-body physics, and enables unprecedented manipulation of these Rydberg states by new means such as chemical composition engineering, structural phase control, and external gauge fields. The solid state REP and its condensates also hold great potential for important applications, such as sensing, communication, and quantum computing.
Direct oblique plane imaging is a high-speed microscopy technique that observes a sample’s plane that is inclined to the focal plane of the microscope objective lens. This wide-field microscopy is suitable for a study of fast dynamics of living samples where the principle plane of interest is tilted to the focal plane. A way to implement this imaging technique is to use remote focusing together with a tilted mirror, which involves asymmetrical pupil function of the imaging system. We rigorously study the anisotropic resolving power of the oblique plane imaging using a vectorial diffraction theory. From the derived effective pupil function, we calculate vectorial point spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF). We show that the two-dimensional (2D) PSF of the direct oblique plane imaging is not merely an oblique crosssection of the 3D PSF of circular aperture system. Similarly, 2D OTF of the oblique plane imaging is different from 2D oblique projection of conventional 3D OTF in circular aperture system.
New confocal microscopy having no mechanical beam scanning devices is proposed. The proposed system can get two-dimensional information of a specimen in real-time by using spectral encoding technique and slit aperture. Spectral encoding technique is used to encode one- dimensional lateral information of the specimen in wavelength by a diffraction grating and a broadband light source. The modeling of the optical system is conducted. The effect of slit width variation on the axial response of the system is evaluated by numerical simulation based on the wave optics. Proper width of the slit aperture which plays a crucial role of the out-of-focus blur rejection is determined by a compromise between axial resolution and signal intensity from the simulation result. Design variables and governing equations of the system are derived on the assumption of a lateral sampling resolution of 50 nm. The system is designed to have a mapping error less than the half pixel size, to be diffraction-limited and to have the maximum illumination efficiency. The designed system has a FOV of 12.8 μm x 9.6 μm, a theoretical axial FWHM of 1.1 μm and a lateral magnification of -367.8.