The integration of graphene and 2D materials into device technologies requires a detailed understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic forces impact their properties, as well as the development of engineering strategies to vary their properties for a specific response. In this paper we describe and review our efforts for hybridizing graphene in different ways so as to modify or enhance a range of properties. This hybridization comes in the form of chemical or electronic modification for use in applications ranging from chem/bio sensors to nanoelectronics. We discuss results on exploiting chemistry and defects in graphene for chemical vapor sensing, on hybridizing graphene with fluorine atoms for potential use in nanoelectronics, and on electronically hybridizing graphene in multilayer stacks that give rise to new optical and surface properties.
Functional surfaces find application in a number of areas, such as designing flexible electronic devices and integrating electronic systems with biological ones. However, the preparation of functional surfaces entails processing that is destructive to fragile polymer or biological substrates. A benign transfer method is thus needed to move pre-functionalized surfaces from a stable substrate to a fragile one. Chemical hydrogenation of graphene weakens the adhesion force between the graphene and its substrate. We exploit this phenomenon to construct a method for transferring graphene with pre-formed chemical, physical, and electronic functionalities from a heat-, vacuum-, and chemical-stable substrate such as silicon to several less robust ones, including polymers and living cells. We also discuss reversibility of graphene hydrogenation and the implications for re-adhering graphene securely to new substrates.