The Mobile Target Acquisition System (MTAS) is an automatic target recognition (ATR) system developed by the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA, under funding by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to detect and identify mobile target laser detection and ranging (LADAR) range signatures. The primary objective was to achieve high correct system identification rates for range signatures of relatively low numbers of pixels on target and, at the same time, maintain a low system identification false alarm rate. MTAS met this objective by stressing conservation and efficient exploitation of target information at all levels of processing. Adaptive noise cleaning conserves target information by filtering pixels only when the pixel and its neighbors satisfied the criteria for range dropouts. The MTAS detector holds false alarms to a low level by convolving synthetic templates with the gradient of the range image and fusing the resulting correlation surface with a blob size filter. Mobile target identification fuses 2-D silhouette shape with 3-D (21/2-D) volumetric shape where the mixture of 2- and 3-D shapes is controlled by a single parameter. The match between the measured LADAR range signature and the synthetic range template efficiently and effectively exploits scarce target information by including all target and template pixels in the Fuzzy Tanimoto Distance similarity measure. This system has successfully detected and identified measured mobile LADAR target signatures with 200 pixels on target and greater with a low confuser identification rate and no system clutter identification false alarms.