The flatness and parallelism error of large scale and ultra thin optics have an important influence on the subsequent polishing efficiency and accuracy. In order to realize the high precision grinding of those ductile elements, the low deformation vacuum chuck was designed first, which was used for clamping the optics with high supporting rigidity in the full aperture. Then the optics was planar grinded under vacuum adsorption. After machining, the vacuum system was turned off. The form error of optics was on-machine measured using displacement sensor after elastic restitution. The flatness would be convergenced with high accuracy by compensation machining, whose trajectories were integrated with the measurement result. For purpose of getting high parallelism, the optics was turned over and compensation grinded using the form error of vacuum chuck. Finally, the grinding experiment of large scale and ultra thin fused silica optics with aperture of 430mm×430mm×10mm was performed. The best P-V flatness of optics was below 3 μm, and parallelism was below 3 ″. This machining technique has applied in batch grinding of large scale and ultra thin optics.
A systematic error calibration method is presented to improve the measurement accuracy of lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). This method is used to remove the most significant errors: geometric optical path difference (OPD) and detector tilt error. Difference fronts in the 0° and 90° directions are used to reconstruct wavefront using difference Zernike polynomial fitting. And difference fronts in the 45° and 135° directions are also used to reconstruct wavefront. The coefficient differences between the reconstructed wavefront are generated from geometric OPD and detector tilt error. The relationship between Zernike coefficient differences and systematic parameters are presented based on shear matrix. Thus, the distance of diffracted light converging point (d) and detector tilt angle can be calculated from the coefficient difference. Based on the calculated d and detector tilt angle, the geometric OPD and detector-tilt induced systematic errors are removed and the measurement accuracy of LSI is improved.
A multipurpose laser damage test facility delivering pulses from 1ns to 20ns and designed to output energy 40 Joule at 351nm is presented. The laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurement and test procedure are performed. The original system consist of the online detection system based on the microscopy and an energy detection device based on the scientific grade Charge Coupled Device (CCD) which provides the method to measure the LIDT with high accuracy. This method is an efficient way that allows measuring a small area fluence which the defect exposed. After complete test procedure and data treatment the damage position of the defect has been found. Then we can obtain the local fluence of small area when the damage occurred. This procedure provides a straightforward means of laser-damage threshold obtained from the test method. Damage correlation of measures is discussed in connection with present theoretical understanding of laser damage phenomenon. The damage process in transparent dielectric materials being the results of complex processes involving multi-photon ionization, avalanche ionization, electron-phonon coupling, and thermal effects. Those complex processes lead to the damage on the optical surface. We performed a method to measure the local fluence which defects irradiated with high accurate.
The investigation of the influence polarization orientation on damage performance of type I doubler KDP crystals grown by the conventional growth method under under 532nm pulse exposure is carried out in this work. The obtained results point out the pinpoint density (ppd) of polarization parallels the extraordinary axis is around 1.5× less than that of polarization parallels the ordinary axis under the same fluence, although polarization has no influence on size distribution of pinpoints. Meanwhile, crystal inhomogeneity is observed during experiment.
The computation time of wavefront reconstruction is decreased by sampling the difference fronts in the present study. The wavefront can be reconstructed with high accuracy up to 64 Zernike terms with only 32×32 sampled pixels. Furthermore, the computational efficiency can be improved by a factor of more than 1000, and the measurement efficiency of lateral shearing interferometry is improved. The influence of the terms used to reconstruct the wavefront, the grid size of the test wavefront, the shear ratio, and the random noise on the reconstruction accuracy is analyzed and compared, when the difference fronts are sampled with different grid sizes. Numerical simulations and experiments show that the relative reconstruction error is <5% if the grid size of the sampled difference fronts is more than four times the radial order of difference Zernike polynomials with a reasonable noise level and shear ratio.
A new systematic error calibration method in lateral shearing interferometry (LSI) is proposed for extreme ultraviolet
lithography. This method is used to remove the most significant errors: geometric optical path difference (OPD) and
detector tilt error. The difference fronts of 0th and ±1st order diffracted waves are used to reconstruct wavefront. The
Zernike coefficients of the reconstructed wavefront are used to calculate the distance among different diffracted light
converging points (d). The difference front of 0th and +1st order diffracted waves is mirrored and added to the difference
front of 0th and –1st order diffracted waves. The sum is used to calculate detector tilt angle. The geometric OPD and
detector-tilt induced systematic errors are removed based on the calculated d and detector tilt angle. Simulations show
that the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the residual systematic error is smaller than 0.1nm. The proposed method can
be used to accurately measure the aberration of EUV optics with large numerical aperture (NA 0.5) in LSI.