The distribution and change of snow coverage are sensitive factors of climate change. In northeast part of China, farmlands are still covered with snow in spring. Since sowing activity can only be done when the snow melted, fields snow coverage monitoring provides reference for the determination of sowing date. Because of the restriction of the sensors and application requirements, current researches on remote sensing of snow focus more on the study of musicale and large scale, rather than the study of small scale, and especially research on snow melting period is rarely reported.HJ-1A/B satellites are parts of little satellite constellation, focusing on environment and disaster monitoring and meteorological forecast. Compared to other data sources, HJ-1A/B satellites both have comparatively higher temporal and spatial resolution and are more conducive to monitor the variations of melting snow coverage at small watershed. This paper was based on HJ-1A/1B data, taking Hongxing farm of Bei’an, Heilongjiang Province, China as the study area. In this paper, we exploited the methods for extraction of snow cover information on farmland in two cases, both HJ-1A/1B CCD with HJ-1B IRS data and just HJ-1A/1B CCD data. The reason we chose the two cases is that, the two optical satellites HJ-1A/B are capable of providing a whole territory coverage period in visible light spectrum in two days, infrared spectrum in four days. So sometimes we can only obtain CCD image. In this case, the method of normalized snow index cannot be used to extract snow coverage information. Using HJ-1A/1B CCD with HJ-1B IRS data, combined with the theory of snow remote sensing monitoring, this paper analyzed spectral response characteristics of HJ-1A/1B satellites data, then the widely used Normalized Difference Snow Index(NDSI) and S3 Index were quoted to the HJ-1A/1B satellites data. The NDSI uses reflectance values of Red and SWIR spectral bands of HJ-1B, and S3 index uses reflectance values of NIR, Red and SWIR spectral bands. With multi-temporal HJ satellite data, the optimal threshold of normalized snow index was determined to divide the farmland into snow covering area, melting snow area and non-snow area. The results are quite similar to each other and of high accuracy, and the melting snow coverage can be well extracted by two types of normalized snow index. When we can only obtain CCD image, we use supervised classification method to extract melting snow coverage. With this method, the accuracy of fields snow coverage extraction is slightly lower than that using normalized snow index methods mentioned above. And in mountain area, the snow coverage area is slightly larger than that is extracted by normalized snow index methods, because the shadows make the color of snow in the valley darker, the supervised classification method divides it into non-snow coverage area, while the normalized snow index method well weakened the effect of shadow. This study shows that extraction accuracy in both cases is assessed, and both of them can meet the needs of practical applications. HJ-1A/1B satellites are conducive to monitor the variations of melting snow coverage over farmland, and they can provide reference for the determination of sowing date.
Terrestrial net primary production (NPP), as an important component of carbon cycle on land, not only indicates directly the production level of vegetation community on land, but also shows the status of terrestrial ecosystem. What's more, NPP is also a determinant of carbon sinks on land and a key regulator of ecological processes, including interactions among tropic levels. In the study, three existing models are combined with each other to assess net primary production in Haihe Basin, China. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) model of Monteith is used for the calculation of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), the light utilization efficiency model of Potter et al. is used for determining the light utilization efficiency, and the surface energy balance system (SEBS) of Su is used into Potter's model to describe water stress in land wetness conditions. To assess NPP, We use NOAA-AVHRR data from November 2003 to September 2004 and the corresponding daily data of temperature and hours of sunshine obtained from meteorological stations in Haihe Basin, China. After atmospheric, geometrical and radiant corrections, every ten days NOAA data are processed to become an image of NDVI by means of the maximal value composition method (MVC) in order to eliminate some noises. Using these data, we compute NPP in spring season and spring season of 2004 in Haihe Basin, China. The result shows, in Haihe Basin, NPP for spring season is averaged to 336.10gC•m-2, and 709.16 gC•m-2 for autumn season. In spatial distribution, NPP is greater in both ends than in middle for spring season, and decrease increasingly from north to south for autumn season. Future work should rely on the integration of high and low resolution images to assess net primary production, which will probably have more accurately estimation.