Due to the limitations of gaze detection based on one eye, binocular gaze detection using the gaze positions of both eyes has been researched. Most previous binocular gaze detection research calculated a gaze position as the simple average position of the detected gaze points of both eyes. To improve this approach, we propose a new binocular gaze detection method using a fuzzy algorithm with quality measurement of both eyes. The proposed method is used in the following three ways. First, in order to combine the gaze points of the left and right eyes, we measure four qualities on both eyes: distortion by an eyelid, distortion by the specular reflection (SR), the level of circularity of the pupil, and the distance between the pupil boundary and the SR center. Second, in order to obtain a more accurate pupil boundary, we compensate the distorted boundary of a pupil by an eyelid based on information from the lower half-circle of the pupil. Third, the final gaze position is calculated using a fuzzy algorithm based on four quality-measured scores. Experimental results show that the root-mean-square error of gaze estimation by the proposed method is approximately 0.67518 deg.
Gaze tracking determines what a user is looking at; the key challenge is to obtain well-focused eye images. This is not easy because the human eye is very small, whereas the required resolution of the image should be large enough for accurate detection of the pupil center. In addition, capturing a user's eye image by a remote gaze tracking system within a large working volume at a long Z distance requires a panning/tilting mechanism with a zoom lens, which makes it more difficult to acquire focused eye images. To solve this problem, a new auto-focusing method for remote gaze tracking is proposed. The proposed approach is novel in the following four ways: First, it is the first research on an auto-focusing method for a remote gaze tracking system. Second by using user-dependent calibration at initial stage, the weakness of the previous methods that use facial width in captured image to estimate Z distance between a user and camera, wherein each person has the individual variation of facial width, is solved. Third, the parameters of the modeled formula for estimating the Z distance are adaptively updated using the least squares regression method. Therefore, the focus becomes more accurate over time. Fourth, the relationship between the parameters and the face width is fitted locally according to the Z distance instead of by global fitting, which can enhance the accuracy of Z distance estimation. The results of an experiment with 10,000 images of 10 persons showed that the mean absolute error between the ground-truth Z distance measured by a Polhemus Patriot device and that estimated by the proposed method was 4.84 cm. A total of 95.61% of the images obtained by the proposed method were focused and could be used for gaze detection.
Sub-hologram based holographic display method is one of the most practical approaches for realizing big size
holographic display. However, this method needs highly accurate face and eye tracking function in real-time to enable
precise steering of backlight and generation of corresponding sub-hologram for each video frame. We theoretically
estimated several parameters, such as accuracy, speed and distance from an observer, required for the eye tracking
function and developed an eye tracking system whose objective is accurate and fast 3D positioning of left and right
pupils of an observer. Experimental results show that the system obtains accurate 3D pupil positions with an error less
than 3 mm at 30 frames per second under disturbing conditions such as more than 2m distance and an observer wearing
glasses. Therefore, our implementation could be sufficiently applied to the sub-hologram based display system.
A redundant picture is one of the H.264/AVC tools for increasing error resiliency when video is delivered over error prone environments. We present a loss-aware redundant picture allocation method that determines whether the redundant picture is inserted for each primary coded picture or not. The determination is based on an error rate of transmission network and the distortion of decoded picture caused by the error. Simulation results showed that the proposed method alleviates the distortion and, thereby, it achieves higher quality of the decoded picture than the conventional methods, including the hierarchical redundant picture. In particular, the proposed method produces outstanding results at low bit rates; thus, the method is highly applicable to low bit-rate wireless video transmission.
This paper introduces an interactive contents authoring system which can easily and conveniently produce interactive
contents for the Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB). For interactive broadcasting service, T-DMB
adopted MPEG-4 Systems technology. In order to the interactive service becomes flourishing on the market, various
types of interactive contents should be well provided prior to the service. In MPEG-4 Systems specification,
broadcasting contents are described by the combination of a large number of nodes, routes and descriptors. In order to
provide interactive data services through the T-DMB network, it is essential to have an interactive contents authoring
system which allows contents authors to compose interactive contents easily and conveniently even if they lack any
background on MPEG-4 Systems technology. The introduced authoring system provides powerful graphical user
interface and produces interactive broadcasting contents in the forms of binary and textual format. Therefore, the
interactive contents authoring system presented in this paper would vastly contribute to the flourishing interactive
In this paper, we present an effective streaming method for MPEG-4 contents using the schedule information of image objects and progressive JPEG. The proposed method is designed for Interactive Scalable Multimedia Streaming (ISMuS) system. In rich interactive contents, the amount of image objects is not negligible for a streaming service with QoS. If a streaming system does not manage the image data, it could create a bottleneck in the system. The proposed method considers the schedule information of image objects to be displayed within a specific time frame, generally within a few second. Since the proposed method uses the progressive JPEG instead of Baseline JPEG, it treats image object as scalable Object. The streaming server sends surely DC data of each image object and AC data of image object is sent only when there is an enough room for AC data in network bandwidth. The priorities of audio and video elementary stream are also within the consideration as well as those image objects according to the varying network status.
Technical evolutions in the field of information technology have changed many aspects of the industries and the life of human beings. Internet and broadcasting technologies act as core ingredients for this revolution. Various new services that were never possible are now available to general public by utilizing these technologies. Multimedia service via IP networks becomes one of easily accessible service in these days. Technical advances in Internet services, the provision of constantly increasing network bandwidth capacity, and the evolution of multimedia technologies have made the demands for multimedia streaming services increased explosively. With this increasing demand Internet becomes deluged with multimedia traffics. Although multimedia streaming services became indispensable, the quality of a multimedia service over Internet can not be technically guaranteed. Recently users demand multimedia service whose quality is competitive to the traditional TV broadcasting service with additional functionalities. Such additional functionalities include interactivity, scalability, and adaptability. A multimedia that comprises these ancillary functionalities is often called richmedia. In order to satisfy aforementioned requirements, Interactive Scalable Multimedia Streaming (ISMuS) platform is designed and developed. In this paper, the architecture, implementation, and additional functionalities of ISMuS platform are presented. The presented platform is capable of providing user interactions based on MPEG-4 Systems technology  and supporting an efficient multimedia distribution through an overlay network technology. Loaded with feature-rich technologies, the platform can serve both on-demand and broadcast-like richmedia services.
Within the last years, the enormous growth of Internet based communication as well as the rapid increase of available processing power has lead to the widespread use of multimedia streaming as a means to convey information. This work aims at providing an open architecture designed to support scalable streaming to a large number of clients using application layer multicast. The architecture is based on media relay nodes that can be deployed transparently to any existing media distribution scheme, which can support media streamed using the RTP and RTSP protocols. The architecture is based on overlay networks at application level, featuring rate adaptation mechanisms for responding to network congestion.
In this paper, we present an MPEG-4 contents streaming system and propose MPEG-4 contents streaming scheme by using priority. The presented streaming system which consists of a server and a client supports MPEG-4 contents compliant with ISO/IEC 14496-1 and enables a user to interact with MPEG-4 contents over IP networks. The server consists of GUI, Server Management Layer, Sync Layer, and Delivery Layer. The client supports to display MPEG-4 contents stored in local storage or received through IP networks. Moreover, we propose an MPEG-4 contents streaming scheme that the object a user prefers to watch is sent first by increasing priority and objects with low priority are dropped at a server side when network bandwidth is not enough to transmit all objects that are supposed to appear in the scene. We made experiment of the proposed scheme with the presented MPEG-4 contents streaming system, and the experiment results are shown in this paper. If we use the proposed scheme for MPEG-4 contents streaming, it is possible for a user to watch a video of interest in high quality and video of indifference in low quality.