A 10.1-inch 2D/3D switchable display using an integrated single light-guide plate (LGP) with a trapezoidal lightextraction (TLE) film was designed and fabricated. The integrated single LGP was composed of inverted trapezoidal line structures made by attaching a TLE film on its top surface and cylindrical lens structures on its bottom surface. The top surface of the TLE film was also bonded to the bottom surface of an LCD panel to maintain a 3D image quality, which can be seriously deteriorated by the gap variations between the LCD panel and the LGP. The inverted trapezoidal line structures act as slit apertures of parallax barriers for 3D mode. Light beams from LED light sources placed along the left and right edges of the LGP bounce between the top and bottom surfaces of the LGP, and when they collide with the inclined surfaces of the inverted trapezoidal structures, they are emitted toward the LCD panel. Light beams from LED light sources arranged on the top and bottom edges of the LGP are emitted to the lower surface while colliding with the cylindrical lens structures, and are reflected to the front surface by a reflective film for 2D mode. By applying the integrated single LGP with a TLE film, we constructed a 2D/3D switchable display prototype with a 10.1-inch tablet panel of WUXGA resolution (1,200×1,920). Consequently, we showed light-field 3D and 2D display images without interference artifacts between both modes, and also achieved luminance uniformity of over 80%. This display easily generates both 2D and 3D images without increasing the thickness and power consumption of the display device.
To commercialize glasses-free 3D display more widely, the display device should also be able to express 2D images without image quality degradation. Moreover, the thickness of display panel including backlight unit (BLU), and the power consumption should not be increased too much, especially for mobile applications. In this paper, we present a 10.1-inch 2D-3D switchable display using an integrated single light guide plate (LGP) without increasing the thickness and power consumption. The integrated single LGP with a wedge shape is composed of prismatic line patterns on its top surface and straight bump patterns on its bottom surface. The prismatic line patterns, which are composed of micro prisms having the light aperture on one side, act as slit apertures of parallax barriers for 3D mode. The linear bump patterns arranged along the vertical direction scatter the light uniformly together with the reflective film disposed under the LGP for 2D mode. LED light sources are arranged as edge-lit in the left and right sides of the LGP for 2D mode, and on the top edge of the LGP with the wider thickness for 3D mode. Display modes can be simply switched by turning on and off the LED light sources, alternatively. Applying the integrated single LGP, we realized a 2D-3D switchable display prototype with a 10.1-inch tablet panel of WQXGA resolution (2,560 × 1,600), and showed the light-field 3D display with 27-ray mapping and 2D display. Consequently, we acquired brightness uniformity over 70% for 2D and 3D modes.
Light-field displays are good candidates in the field of glasses-free 3D display for showing real 3D images without decreasing the image resolution. Light-field displays can create light rays using a large number of projectors in order to express the natural 3D images. However, in light-field displays using multi-projectors, the compensation is very critical due to different characteristics and arrangement positions of each projector. In this paper, we present an enhanced 55- inch, 100-Mpixel multi-projection 3D display consisting of 96 micro projectors for immersive natural 3D viewing in medical and educational applications. To achieve enhanced image quality, color and brightness uniformity compensation methods are utilized along with an improved projector configuration design and a real-time calibration process of projector alignment. For color uniformity compensation, projected images from each projector are captured by a camera arranged in front of the screen, the number of pixels based on RGB color intensities of each captured image is analyzed, and the distributions of RGB color intensities are adjusted by using the respective maximum values of RGB color intensities. For brightness uniformity compensation, each light-field ray emitted from a screen pixel is modeled by a radial basis function, and compensating weights of each screen pixel are calculated and transferred to the projection images by the mapping relationship between the screen and projector coordinates. Finally, brightness compensated images are rendered for each projector. Consequently, the display shows improved color and brightness uniformity, and consistent, exceptional 3D image quality.
A small sized, low power consuming, shock proven optical scanner with a capacitive comb-type rotational sensor for the application of mobile projection display is designed, fabricated, and characterized. To get a 2-D video image, the present device horizontally scans a vertical line image made through a line-type diffractive spatial optical modulator. To minimize, device size as well as power consumption, the mirror surface is placed on the opposite side of the coil actuator. To prevent thermal deformation of the mirror, the mirror is partially connected to the center point of the coil actuator. To be shock proof, mechanical stoppers are constructed in the device. The scanner is fabricated from two silicon wafers and one glass wafer using bulk micromachining technology. The packaged scanner consists of the scanner chip, a pair of magnets, yoke rim, and base plate. The fabricated package size is 9.2×10×3 mm (0.28 cc) and the mirror size is 3×1.5 mm. The scanner chip receives no damage under the shock test with an impact of 2000 G in 1 ms. In the case of a full optical scan angle of 30 deg at 120-Hz driving frequency, linearity, repeatability, and power consumption are measured at 98%, 0.013 deg, and 60 mW, respectively, which are suitable for mobile display applications.
A small size, low power consuming, shock proven optical scanner with capacitive comb type rotational sensor for the
application of mobile projection display was designed, fabricated, and characterized. To get a 2-dimensional video image,
the present device horizontally scans a vertical line image made through a line-type diffractive spatial optical modulator.
In order to minimize device size as well as power consumption, the mirror surface was placed on the opposite side of the
coil actuator. To prevent thermal deformation of the mirror, the mirror was partially connected to the center point of the
coil actuator. For shock proof, mechanical stoppers were constructed in the device. The scanner was fabricated from two
silicon wafers and one glass wafer using a bulk micromachining technology. The packaged scanner consists of the
scanner chip, a pair of magnets, yoke rim, and base plate. The fabricated package size is 9.2mmx10mmx3mm (0.28cc)
and the mirror size is 3mmx1.5mm. The scanner chip has no damage under the shock test with impact of 2,000G in 1ms.
In case of full optical scan angle of 30° at 120Hz driving frequency, linearity and power consumption are measured 98%
and 60mW, respectively, which are suitable for mobile display applications.
An electrostatic 1 dimensionally (1D) scanning mirror for HD resolution display is introduced. Vertical comb drive was
used to tilt the micro mirror. To minimize the moment of inertia and maximize the tilting angle of the mirror having the
diameter of 1.6 mm, the rib was patterned on the backside of the mirror surface and optimized. Via the finite element
simulation, the dynamic deformation of 45nm was achieved within the reflecting area in operating resonant mode thanks
to the optimized rib structure. The actuating part of scanner was also optimized manipulating with several design
variables to get maximum tilting angle. As the fabrication result, mechanical tilting angle of ±12.0 degree was achieved
with the resonant frequency of 24.75kHz and the sinusoidal driving voltage of 280Vpp. For stable resonant motion of the
scanner, the feedback control algorithm was realized in the driving circuit. Rigorous reliability characterization was
carried out using statistical analysis on the fabricated samples. As a result, HD-resolution image with 720 progressive
horizontal lines was demonstrated.
The customers' demand for real life-like display with natural colors and high definition is increasing and hence laser display with the best expression of natural color is being proposed as a way to realize this. In particular, the raster scanning display using the high-speed reflective MEMS scanner plus compact laser sources enables realization of ultrasmall optical engine with great optical efficiency. By the way, in recent years the emerging display systems including FPD (Flat Panel Display) and projection systems based on the microdisplay devices show rapid improvements in terms of picture quality, form factor as well as cost. The object of this paper is introducing a technology analysis of success factors of the MEMS based rater scanning display in order to get high-level development roadmap, through a comparison study with the conventional displays. Proper specifications of brightness, color, contrast, resolution, form factor, power consumption and cost-effectiveness are suggested for mobile projector application. The technical challenges toward achievement of the specifications are summarized.
Since lasers have the most saturated colors, laser display can express the natural color excellently. Laser scanning display has merits of simple structure and high optical efficiency. We designed a new scanning mirror which has a circular mirror plate with an elliptical outer frame and is electrostatically driven by vertical combs arranged at the outer frame. This eye-type mirror showed a larger deflection angle compared to the rectangular and the elliptical mirrors. To increase the driving force twice, stationary comb electrodes are arranged at the upper and lower sides of the moving comb fingers, together. The diameter of the mirror plate is 1.0 mm, and the lengths of the major and minor axes of the outer frame are 2.5 mm and 1.0 mm, respectively. Using this scanning mirror, we obtained an optical scanning angle of 32 degrees when driven by the ac control voltage of the resonant frequency in the range of 22.1 ~ 24.5 kHz with the 100 V dc bias voltages. We demonstrated the full color XGA-resolution video image with the size over 30 inches using an eye-type scanning mirror. The successful development of compact laser TV will open a new area of home application of the laser light.
The laser TV using blue, green diode-pumped solid state lasers and a red diode laser is developed. The wavelengths of the blue, green and red are 457 nm, 532 nm and 648 nm, and the output powers are 350 mW, 700 mW and 500 mW, respectively. The power levels of lasers are adjusted for white color balance. The polygon mirror and the galvanometer are used for horizontal scanning and vertical scanning, respectively. The image size of 80 inches with high-brightness and VGA resolution (640 X 480 Progressive scanning) is obtained. The acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is fabricated for laser beam modulation, for which the carrier frequency of 350 MHz for XGA resolution is applied. TeO<SUB>2</SUB> crystal, which is cut at Brewster angle, is used as an optical medium and LiNbO<SUB>3</SUB> is attached as a transducer. In order to get a compact size, low cost, low-power consumption and lightweight, a scanning mirror using MEMS technology is fabricated by the size of 1500 micrometers X 1200 micrometers . This scanning mirror can be used as a galvanometric vertical scanner for laser TV.
A 1500 micrometers X 1200 micrometers silicon scanning mirror for laser display has been fabricated. This scanning mirror is mainly composed of two structures having vertical comb fingers. By anodic bonding of the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass substrate, and followed deep ICPRIE (Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching), isolated comb electrodes were fabricated at the lower structure. But in this anodic bonding, gold signal lines for electrical connection to the electrodes, which were inserted between silicon and Pyrex glass, were cut off by mechanical pressure or damaged to agglomerate by diffusion. To remove these phenomena, Pyrex glass was trenched about 2000 Angstroms in depth in the shape of signal lines, and Cr/Au signal lines were formed along the etched grooves about 500 Angstroms/3500 Angstroms in depth, and then annealed at 400 degree(s)C, N<SUB>2</SUB> atmosphere, for 1 hour before anodic bonding. As a result, gold signal lines were successfully fabricated and the contact resistance was acquired below several tens ohms. By flip chip bonding, the upper and lower structure having vertical comb fingers were assembled. Vertical comb fingers of two structures were aligned with a microscope and the frames of two structures were bonded at 300 degree(s)C for 20 sec. using the eutectic bonding material, electroplated AuSn. Using these bonding technologies, the scanning mirror was successfully fabricated and it could be used for laser display as a galvanometric vertical scanner.
A 200 inches large-area laser projection display is presented. the laser light processor is mainly composed of a white laser for light source, acousto-optic modulators and the laser beam scanner composed of a galvanometer and a polygon scan mirror. The white light source is a Krypton- Argon laser with main wavelengths 647nm, 515nm, 488nm, respectively. Collimated and focused laser beams are modulated at acousto-optic modulators according to the video signals. Dichroic mirrors are used for separating the white laser beam to red, green, blue light beams and recombining the modulated red, green, blue light beams to one light beam. Recombined laser beam is vertically scanned by a galvanometer running at 60Hz rate and horizontally scanned by the 24 facet polygon scan mirror rotating at the speed of 39,375rpm. Between the polygon scan mirror and the galvanometer, relay lenses are inserted for which horizontally scanned beam is focused onto the galvanometer mirror facet. The size of 4m X 3m image with high resolution is obtained at the throw distance of 7m using 4W white light.
Full color laser projection display is realized on the large screen using a krypton-argon laser (white laser) as a light source, and acousto-optic devices as light modulators. The main wavelengths of red, green and blue color are 647, 515, and 488 nm separated by dichroic mirrors which are designed to obtain the best performance for the s-polarized beam with the 45 degree incident angle. The separated beams are modulated by three acousto-optic modulators driven by rf drivers which has energy level of 1 watt at 144 MHz and recombined by dichroic mirrors again. Acousto-optic modulators (AOM) are fabricated to satisfy high diffraction efficiency over 80% and fast rising time less than 50 ns at the video bandwidth of 5 MHz. The recombined three beams (RGB) are scanned by polygonal mirrors for horizontal lines and a galvanometer for vertical lines. The photodiode detection for monitoring of rotary polygonal mirrors is adopted in this system for the compensation of the tolerance in the mechanical scanning to prevent the image joggling in the horizontal direction. The laser projection display system described in this paper is expected to apply HDTV from the exploitation of the acousto- optic modulator with the video bandwidth of 30 MHz.