Disseminating data among sensors is a fundamental operation in
energy-constrained wireless sensor networks. We present a gossip-based adaptive protocol for data dissemination to improve energy efficiency of this operation. To overcome the data implosion problems associated with dissemination operation, our protocol uses meta-data to name the data using high-level data descriptors and negotiation to eliminate redundant transmissions of duplicate data in the network. Further, we adapt the gossiping with data aggregation possibilities in sensor networks. We simulated our data dissemination protocol, and compared it to the SPIN protocol. We find that our protocol improves on the energy consumption by about 20% over others, while improving significantly over the data dissemination rate of gossiping.
Rapid technological advances in wireless communication have made it
possible for networking sensor devices. Given the low computation and battery power capacities of these sensor nodes, the key design factors of network protocols are self-configuring, energy-efficient, adaptive, and scalable. We presented the multi-hop infrastructure network architecture (MINA) for a wireless sensor network consisting of a few hundred sensors that communicate data to a base station (BS). We designed a Unified Network Protocol Framework for MINA that encompasses network organization, medium access control (MAC) and routing protocols. In this paper, we improve it by adaptively varying transmission range to maintain network connectivity. It is a derivative-free optimization algorithm. The BS periodically evaluates the objective function, chooses the appropriate transmission range and broadcasts it to the sensor nodes that then update the transmission range. The advantages are: (i) Avoids the disconnectivity; (ii) Maximizes the number of nodes that can be connected to the BS, (iii) Minimizes the <i>energy</i>x<i>delay</i> metric and (iv) Avoids the "hot-spot" nodes in the network. The performance in terms of delay, throughput, energy consumption and network lifetimes, is studied in detail using discrete-event simulation compared with other protocol. The results show that it is energy efficient in a large scale network.
Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.
The upcoming Ultra-wide-band (UWB) radio technology holds great promise for revolutionizing wireless communications. UWB radios transmit using precise, very short (e.g. picosecond) impulses spread over a very large bandwidth (up to a few Ghz). The significant advantages of this technology are low-power operation, mitigated multi-path fading effects, high bit-rates and unique precise position/timing location ability. However, one of the drawbacks of this technology, in its current state, is the high channel acquisition time, i.e. the time for a transmitter and receiver to achieve bit synchronization. This tends to be quite high, of the order of a few milli-seconds. Hence, it is important for current medium access control (MAC) protocol design to consider the impact of acquisition time. In this paper, we study the performance of two standard MAC protocols - the distributed CSMA/CA protocol and the centralized TDM protocol in the context of UWB wireless local area networks. We study effects of varying packet frame sizes and packet arrival rates and present a quantification of the impact of acquisition time on overall performance.