Nowadays, face expression simulation is widely used in film and television special effects, human-computer interaction and many other fields. Facial expression is captured by the device of Kinect camera .The method of AAM algorithm based on statistical information is employed to detect and track faces. The 2D regression algorithm is applied to align the feature points. Among them, facial feature points are detected automatically and 3D cartoon model feature points are signed artificially. The aligned feature points are mapped by keyframe techniques. In order to improve the animation effect, Non-feature points are interpolated based on empirical models. Under the constraint of Bézier curves we finish the mapping and interpolation. Thus the feature points on the cartoon face model can be driven if the facial expression varies. In this way the purpose of cartoon face expression simulation in real-time is came ture. The experiment result shows that the method proposed in this text can accurately simulate the facial expression. Finally, our method is compared with the previous method. Actual data prove that the implementation efficiency is greatly improved by our method.
In order to evaluate the complexity of a color image more effectively and find the connection between image complexity and image information, this paper presents a method to compute the complexity of image based on color information.Under the complexity ,the theoretical analysis first divides the complexity from the subjective level, divides into three levels: low complexity, medium complexity and high complexity, and then carries on the image feature extraction, finally establishes the function between the complexity value and the color characteristic model. The experimental results show that this kind of evaluation method can objectively reconstruct the complexity of the image from the image feature research. The experimental results obtained by the method of this paper are in good agreement with the results of human visual perception complexity,Color image complexity has a certain reference value.
The simulation of 3D clouds has been a challenging research question in the field of computer graphics. Aiming at the problem that the existing three-dimensional cloud is not realistic, a three-dimensional particle cloud simulation method based on the illumination model is proposed, which randomly generate the particles according to the principle of the particle system and give the particles the initial color, size and shape. And then add the lighting effects and render them to achieve the three-dimensional cloud simulation. Comparing with the previous three-dimensional cloud modeling method, this method has the advantages of rapid rendering of cloud, because of the effect of adding light, the real feeling more intense.
Proc. SPIE. 9683, 8th International Symposium on Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing Technologies: Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies
KEYWORDS: Mathematical modeling, Signal to noise ratio, Wavelet transforms, Digital watermarking, Discrete wavelet transforms, 3D modeling, 3D printing, Printing, Information security, Affine motion model
With the continuous development of industrialization, 3D printing technology steps into individuals’ lives gradually, however, the consequential security issue has become the urgent problem which is imminent. This paper proposes the 3D printing optical watermark algorithms based on the combination of DWT and Fresnel transformation and utilizes authorized key to restrict 3D model printing’s permissions. Firstly, algorithms put 3D model into affine transform, and take the distance from the center of gravity to the vertex of 3D object in order to generate a one-dimensional discrete signal; then make this signal into wavelet transform and put the transformed coefficient into Fresnel transformation. Use math model to embed watermark information into it and finally generate 3D digital model with watermarking. This paper adopts VC++.NET and DIRECTX 9.0 SDK for combined developing and testing, and the results show that in fixed affine space, achieve the robustness in translation, revolving and proportion transforms of 3D model and better watermark-invisibility. The security and authorization of 3D model have been protected effectively.
The high-efficiency simulation test of military weapons has a very important effect on the high cost of the actual combat test and the very demanding operational efficiency. Especially among the simulative emulation methods of the explosive smoke, the simulation method based on the particle system has generated much attention. In order to further improve the traditional simulative emulation degree of the movement process of the infrared decoy during the real combustion cycle, this paper, adopting the virtual simulation platform of OpenGL and Vega Prime and according to their own radiation characteristics and the aerodynamic characteristics of the infrared decoy, has simulated the dynamic fuzzy characteristics of the infrared decoy during the real combustion cycle by using particle system based on the double depth peeling algorithm and has solved key issues such as the interface, coordinate conversion and the retention and recovery of the Vega Prime’s status. The simulation experiment has basically reached the expected improvement purpose, effectively improved the simulation fidelity and provided theoretical support for improving the performance of the infrared decoy.
To expand the infrared (IR) target detection scope of tank, according to the requirements of real-time recognition and tracking for target with joint transform correlator (JTC) a set of infrared (IR) continuous zoom optical system with 8-12 μm long-wave-band was designed, which applied long-wave 384× 288 element uncooled thermal IR focal plane array detector. In this system, the zoom ratio is 8× , the range of the focal length is 30mm-240mm, F number is 2 and during the zoom process the relative aperture is invariant. This system used the mechanical compensation method, after designed and optimized, it can be composed of 6 spherical lenses with Ge and ZnS only. The design results show that when the cutoff frequency is 14lp/mm, in the whole range of the focal length the MTF curves are all above 0.52 which all approach to the diffraction limit curves. And the spot size is smaller than the pixel size of the receiver. It can meet the requirement of long IR target recognition and tracking in the practical application.
The polarization imaging detection technology increased the polarization information on the basis of the intensity imaging, which is extensive application in the military and civil and other fields. The research present and development trend of polarization imaging detection technology was introduce, the system scheme of the active polarization imaging detection was put forward, and the key technologies such as the polarization information detection, optical system design, polarization radiation calibration and image fusion approach was analyzed. On this basis, detection system by existing equipment of laboratory was set up, and on the different materials such as wood, metal, plastic and goal was detected by polarization imaging to realize the active polarization imaging detection. The results show that image contrast of the metal and man-made objects is higher, the polarization effect is better, which provided the basis on the better performance of the polarization imaging instruments.
In light transmission processing, light is effected by the fog/haze/smoke/dust environment usually. Thus reduce the capability of traditional photo-electric instrument in detection, transmission, imaging, because of the attenuation, scattering, absorbing of the atmosphere. Polarization transmission characteristics exist the potential possibility in observing object through fog and smoke, increasing observation distance, improve the environment adaptability of the photo-electric instrument. The influence of polarization transmission characteristics are analyzed by environment testing experiment in this paper, including light intensity, degree of polarization, angle of polarization etc. We research smoke and fog environment simulation technology, builds the process-controlled and parameter-measured indoor equipment to simulate smoke/fog environment. The experiments of the polarization characteristic are tested in two kinds of transmission mediums separately, which are water fog and oil smoke. The attenuation ratio is measured in different kinds of smoke concentrations. Polarization imaging experiment are tested separately in different kinds of illuminance lights, which are daylight lamp, LED lights and projector lights. The images are captured by imaging CCD with linearly polarized filters on degree 0, 60, 120. The polarization images on three directions are processed by image infuse algorithm. The experiment results are provided as the theory foundation and data reference in field of polarization transmission.
Target recognition is widely used in national economy, space technology and national defense and other fields. There is great difference between the difficulty of the target recognition and target extraction. The image complexity is evaluating the difficulty level of extracting the target from background. It can be used as a prior evaluation index of the target recognition algorithm's effectiveness. The paper, from the perspective of the target and background characteristics measurement, describe image complexity metrics parameters using quantitative, accurate mathematical relationship. For the collinear problems between each measurement parameters, image complexity metrics parameters are clustered with gray correlation method. It can realize the metrics parameters of extraction and selection, improve the reliability and validity of image complexity description and representation, and optimize the image the complexity assessment calculation model. Experiment results demonstrate that when gray system theory is applied to the image complexity analysis, target characteristics image complexity can be measured more accurately and effectively.
The polarization imaging detection technology increased the polarization information on the basis of the intensity imaging, which is extensive application in the military and civil and other fields, the research on the polarization characteristics of target is particularly important. The research of the polarization reflection model was introduced in this paper, which describes the scattering vector light energy distribution in reflecting hemisphere polarization characteristics, the target polarization characteristics test system solutions was put forward, by the irradiation light source, measuring turntable and camera, etc, which illuminate light source shall direct light source, with laser light sources and xenon lamp light source, light source can be replaced according to the test need; Hemispherical structure is used in measuring circumarotate placed near its base material sample, equipped with azimuth and pitching rotation mechanism, the manual in order to adjust the azimuth Angle and high Angle observation; Measuring camera pump works, through the different in the way of motor control polaroid polarization test, to ensure the accuracy of measurement and imaging resolution. The test platform has set up by existing laboratory equipment, the laser is 532 nm, line polaroid camera, at the same time also set the sending and receiving optical system. According to the different materials such as wood, metal, plastic, azimuth Angle and zenith Angle in different observation conditions, measurement of target in the polarization scattering properties of different exposure conditions, implementation of hemisphere space pBRDF measurement.
In the domain of target recognition, the image complexity of target and background is used to describe the difficult degree of extracting and recognizing target from complex background, which has important guiding significance and widely application prospect in a lot of domains such as biological medical, information encrypt, image compression, meteorological analysis, automatic target recognition. This paper comprehensively took the innate characteristics of target and the target local background characteristic into consideration, which affected the algorithm performance of target extraction and recognition, then made generalizations of three classes of evaluation methods: methods based on the target characteristic, including the target shape characteristic, the gray standard deviation of target pixels, the target Local background entropy difference, etc; methods based on the target similitude, including the edge profile and structural characteristic similitude between target and phony target; methods based on the background characteristic, including texture characteristic edge ratio, etc. And on this basis, we made research on the relationship of structural features and evaluation parameters, and analyzed the foundation and properties of each method by contrast. Thoughts and foresights of this field are given at the end of this paper.
To suppress the interference of the target detecting in the turbid medium, a kind of polarization detection technology based on Curvelet transform was applied. This method firstly adjusts the angles of polarizing film to get the intensity images of the situations at 0°,60° and 120°, then deduces the images of Stokes vectors, degree of polarization (DOP) and polarization angle (PA) according to the Mueller matrix. At last the DOP and intensity images can be decomposed by Curvelet transform to realize the fusion of the high and low coefficients respectively, after the processed coefficients are reconstructed, the target which is easier to detect can be achieved. To prove this method, many targets in turbid medium have been detected by polarization method and fused their DOP and intensity images with Curvelet transform algorithm. As an example screws in moderate and high concentration liquid are presented respectively, from which we can see the unpolarized targets are less obvious in higher concentration liquid. When the DOP and intensity images are fused by Curvelet transform, the targets are emerged clearly out of the turbid medium, and the values of the quality evaluation parameters in clarity, degree of contract and spatial frequency are prominently enhanced comparing with the unpolarized images, which can show the feasibility of this method.
An improved image fusion algorithm based on the NSCT is proposed in this paper. After decomposition NSCT method of multi-scale and multiple directions, polarization image was decomposed into two parts: low frequency sub-band and high frequency band-pass images. The fusion strategy of combining local regional energy and gradient structure similarity were used in low-frequency coefficients. While in the high-frequency band-pass coefficients part, the fusion strategy of the location spatial frequency as the correlation coefficient was used. The intensity image and polarization degree image are fused for improving the sharpness and contrast of the image. The experiments show that the algorithm is effective to improve the imaging quality in the turbid medium.
The diffuser ring diameter measurement is the most critical in hemagglutinin Measuring. The traditional methods,
such as a vernier caliper or high-definition scanned images are subjective and low for the measurement data reliability.
Propose high-resolution diffusion ring image for drop-resolution processing, adaptive Canny operator and local detection
method to extract complete and clear diffusion ring boundaries, and finally make use of polynomial interpolation
algorithm to make diffusion ring outer boundary pixel coordinates achieve sub-pixel accuracy and the least-squares
fitting circle algorithm to calculate the precise center of the circle and the diameter of the diffuser ring. Experimental
results show that the method detection time is only 63.61ms, which is a faster speed; diffuser ring diameter estimation
error can achieve 0.55 pixel, high stability in experimental data. This method is adapted to the various types of influenza
vaccine hemagglutinin content measurements, and has important value in the influenza vaccine quality detection.
In order to extract hemagglutinin outer contour accurately in the hemagglutinin image,
analyzes the hemagglutinin protein content by the size of detected contour, presents a regular hexagon
bar circle detection algorithm which uses regular hexagon bar detection template to detect outer
contour of the hemagglutinin. Firstly, the hemagglutinin image thresholded by using OTSU adaptive
thresholding method; and then using regular hexagon bar detection template method to rough align
hemagglutinin after thresholded, intersection of detection template and the hemagglutinin contour area
is attained, the noise near hemagglutinin contour is reduced by using the standardization relationship of
the hexagon bars, so the hemagglutinin pixels are accurately obtained; finally the hemagglutinin outer
contour information is gained by the geometric relationship of pixels, the hemagglutinin position is
achieved precisely. The experimental results show that: the contour detection error due to the density
uneven and the edge unclearly of hemagglutinin image protein is better reduced, the detection accuracy
is increased by a factor of 0.47, detection speed is increased by a factor of 0.56.The hemagglutinin
contour can be dected stablely, fastly, accurately and the is significant to the study of the hemagglutinin
Polarization imaging detection technology in addition to the traditional imaging information,
also can get polarization multi-dimensional information, thus improve the probability of target
detection and recognition.Image fusion in turbid medium target polarization image research, is helpful
to obtain high quality images. Based on visible light wavelength of light wavelength of laser
polarization imaging, through the rotation Angle of polaroid get corresponding linear polarized light
intensity, respectively to obtain the concentration range from 5% to 10% of turbid medium target
stocks of polarization parameters, introduces the processing of image fusion technology, main research
on access to the polarization of the image by using different polarization image fusion methods for
image processing, discusses several kinds of turbid medium has superior performance of polarization
image fusion method, and gives the treatment effect and analysis of data tables. Then use pixel level,
feature level and decision level fusion algorithm on three levels of information fusion, DOLP
polarization image fusion, the results show that: with the increase of the polarization Angle,
polarization image will be more and more fuzzy, quality worse and worse. Than a single fused image
contrast of the image be improved obviously, the finally analysis on reasons of the increase the image
contrast and polarized light.
the polarized light in the atmosphere, water and human tissue is more application. For
polarized light in turbid medium of different integrated transmission characteristics, this paper adopts the
mie scattering theory polarized light scattering method research in turbid medium, the transmission
characteristics of polarized light in turbid medium is given in the model, the change law of polarization
light intensity change. Finally based on the coherent polarization theory, USES the cross spectral density
partially coherent light polarization characteristics of transmission in the transmission process changes to
When the laser through the atmosphere ,air molecules and aerosol particles can cause scattering
of laser transmission process,attenuation of laser energy ,and also change the polarization
characteristics of laser,in the end the change will affect the result of the last detected image.
On the problem of polarization atmospheric transmission theory imperfection,solve the scattering
amplitude functions about the scattering of homogeneous spherical particle and the scattering cross
section function from Maxwell's electromagnetic field equation, at the same time, carry out the
theoretical research of polarized light scattering characteristics in different medium based on
Stokes-Mueller matrix,focus on the character of polarization scattering, conclusion the change rules
of polarization state ,degree of polarization,and other polarization parameters,and analysis the
relationship of the concentration of transmission medium, transmission distance and the particle
diameter by computer numerical simulation.
The result indicates that depolarization factor of polarized light is closely related to the
concentration of transmission media, the distance of transmission, the particle diameter, revealing
that the higher concentration of transmission media, the more obvious depolarization phenomenon
which establishes the fundamental of the target being recognized better for the presenting image of
The polarization imaging detection technology has some advantages in revealling targets in complex background, identify stealthy, camouflage, dim, false target, and "penetrating smoke". This article summarizes foreign polarization imaging detection technology development process, the status
and development trends, and discusses the foreign technical level, further research on key technology of polarization imaging detection, put forward a scheme of the detection system based on polarization imaging in complex environment, through increasing the polarization dimension information based on
intensity imaging , on which intensity and spectrum cannot reflect, and can significantly enhance the
difference between target and background, increase influencing distance in the haze, smoke and dust
environment , through the analysis, we elucidated the feasibility and availability of the system, in order
to enhance the future of the target detection and recognition ability of photoelectric equipment.
With the development of electro-optical imaging system technology and simulation technology,
and the demand of optimizing the new type electro-optical imaging system theoretical model, more and
more scientific research institutes, colleges and universities research on the simulation of
electro-optical imaging system, and the better results were obtained. Simulation technology saved the
cost of system design development, meanwhile, some complex and hard to re-implement experiments
can be carried repeatedly. According to the demand of complex environment construction technology
and the requirement of imaging simulation system fidelity, considering the performance of
electro-optical imaging system, an electro-optical imaging system is modeled. The modeling has two
aspects which is scene characteristic modeling and electro-optical system modeling. Scene
characteristic modeling can construct dynamic scenes in different kinds of complex environments by
using powerful OpenGL three-dimension model visualization technology. Electro-optical system
modeling is consist of optical system and imaging detector. Electro-optical imaging system simulation
model is established with the analysis of electro-optical imaging system theory. The use of modular
design concept and general interface technology is combined. Different imaging effect is received
under different parameters by modifying the model’s related parameters. The experimental results show
that, the image produced from simulation basically reflects the performance of imaging system, so this
kind of image can be used as a information source for imaging system performance analysis. It
provides a simple and feasible method for the analysis of imaging system performance, which has a
very important practical significance.
Polarization is a primary characteristic of electromagnetic wave. Polarization is another field of the light
except the intensity, wavelength, and coherence. Polarization can indicate the different attributions that
decided by objects, such as surface features, roughness, shading, shape and so on. Polarization Imaging is a
useful complement to traditional intensity and spectral imaging methods with great potential in many
application fields. In the future war, the advantages of polarization are significant for target detection and
recognition in the increasingly complicated battlefield environment. In this paper, the research progress is
generally introduced in military application in four fields: 1) target polarization characteristics and simulationenhance
contrast, distinguish the target and background; 2) polarization transmission characteristics- observe
target through the smoke and fog of War; 3) polarization imaging detection methods- improve the imaging
quality, enhance the information available; 4) polarization image processing- improve detection and tracking
A method of laser energy density distribution measurement is presented in this paper. Dot-matrix method and CCD
imaging method are combined in pulse laser far-distance energy density measurement system. The laser energy data is
received by detectors on the reflective board, and the laser spot reflected by the reflective board is acquired by the CCD
camera. The relation of laser spot image gray and energy data is gotten by image processing algorithms, and energy
density distribution is analyzed according to the model of laser energy. Algorithms principle and process are presented
detailedly in this paper.
According to the principle of optical measurement, an effective and simple method to measure the distortion of CCD
camera and lens is presented in this paper. The method is based on computer active vision and digital image processing
technology. The radial distortion of camera lens is considered in the method, while the camera parameters such as the
pixel interval and focus of camera are calibrated. The optoelectronic theodolite is used in our experiment system. The
light spot can imaging in CCD camera from the theodolite. The position of the light spot should be changed without the
camera's rotation, while the optoelectronic theodolite rotates an angle. All view reference points in the image are worked
out by computing the angle between actual point and the optical center where the distortion can be ignored. The error
correction parameters are computed, and then the camera parameters are calibrated. The sub-pixel subdivision method is
used to improve the point detection precision in our method. The experiment result shows that our method is effective,
simple and practical.
In the space laser communication, the link of communication is builded in atmospheric random channel. the laser
transmission is affected by the atmospheric turbulence seriously. The communication laser is modulated to circular
polarized light in order to reduce the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. A several experiments are designed to
validate that the circular polarized laser is available to reduce the communication noise in the space optical
communication. The methods of the laser spot detection and spot parameter analysis is put forward in this paper: Firstly
the subtraction of the background is used in image preprocessing in order to eliminate the influence of static background,
then a series of methods such as the local dynamic threshold segmentation, edge extraction are used to detect and
recognize the spot. Finally the parameters of the spot are calculated such as spot's average brightness, background's
average brightness and the contrast gradient, and the characteristic of the laser communication is analyzed. The
experiment results show that the circular polarized laser can enhance the contrast and improve the communication
quality in the spatial optical communication. This method satisfies the request of real-time processing in communication,
and is also effective and practical. practical.
The shooting range test is an important field in modern weapon development. The modern weaponry is developing towards long distance and automation directions, therefore the shooting range test is put forward new higher requirements. A novel method of target detection based on the digital image processing technology is proposed in the paper. Experiments indicate the strategy is fit to the request of the dynamic target detection and tracking in the shooting range.
A method for the detection and tracking of human face in color images is described in this paper. A skin color model in r,g,b chrominance space is used for segmenting skin color regions from non-skin color region. The best-fit rectangle of the skin color region is labeled as a candidate face. But the face skin color is sensitive to the change of the environment illumination. An algorithm is proposed to update the skin color model's parameters in time so that the model is adapted to different lighting conditions. The confidence measure is presented to evaluate the reliability of skin color model. Experiments demonstrate that the self-adaptive color model is more effective than the fixed model. The color adaptation makes that the color model can be better fit to the more complex application environment.