Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is essential for remodeling the primitive vascular plexus during embryonic development and for reducing plasma leakage in inflammation of adult vasculature. However, the role for Ang-1 in maintenance of vascular stability in isolated pancreatic islets is not fully understood. In this study, we compared the difference of vascular morphology between Ang-1 treated (n=5) and control mouse islets (n=5) using both two- and three-dimensional optical image analysis. Isolated mouse islets were transduced with Ang-1 or Lac Z (control) vector at 37°C for 16 hours. Islets were incubated with both rat anti-CD31 antibody and rabbit anti-insulin antibody followed by incubation with Rhodamine-conjugated goat anti-rat IgG and Alexa-488 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. Islets were viewed under a Nikon confocal microscope. Serial optical section images were captured and reconstructed using Nikon EZ-C1 software. Individual two-D and reconstructed three-D images were analyzed using MetaMorph Image Analysis software. Islet vascular density was determined. In two-D images, there was no significant difference of vascular density between the two groups. The vascular morphology didn't show any obvious differences in two-D images either. However, in the three-D images, we found higher vascular density and more vascular branches in the Ang-1 transducted islets and vascular dilation in control group. In conclusion, using three-D image analysis, Ang-1 displayed functions in maintenance of vascular stability and in stimulating growth of vascular branches in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. In order to study further the regeneration of different cell contents in the spherical pancreatic islet, three-D image analysis is an effective method to approach this goal.